that donates protons.
reactive group of element in Group 1 of the periodic table.
International base unit of current intensity. 1 Ampere flows through one
Ohm of resistance, when a potential of one volt is applied. I=E/R.
The quantity of
electricity that passes through a circuit in one hour, when the rate of
flow is one ampere.
charged non-metallic ion.
The electrode in
an electrochemical/galvanic cell that experiences oxidation, or gives up
designating a system that involves water or a chemical mixture or solution
having water as the solvent.
The total number
of Ampere-hours that can be derived from a fully loaded battery, under a
specified set of conditions. The current supplying capability of a battery
charged metallic ion.
The electrode in
an electrochemical/galvanic cell, at which a reduction reaction occurs, or
the electrode that receives electrons from an external circuit.
A compound of
metallic and non-metallic elements, for which the inter-atomic bonding is
The fraction of
full capacity available from a battery under a specified set of
conditions, after the battery has been stored for a given amount of time.
A quantity of
electricity associated with a space, particle, or body.
The ratio of
output of a secondary battery to the input required to restore it to its
original state, under a specified set of conditions.
The holding of an
electric charge by a cell or battery when no current is being drawn from
combination of two or more distinct material with an intended purpose to
achieve desired properties.
charge exists in discrete quantities that are integral multiples of
electronic charge or 1.6022 x 10-19 Coulombs.
The ratio of the
output of charge by a battery to the input of charge. Coulombic efficiency
is determined by the internal resistance of a cell.
energy or charge delivered by a battery when in use.
The movement of
charge carriers, such as electrons, holes, or ions. Expressed in amperes.
The withdrawal of
current from a cell or battery.
The stability of
a material (both on an atomic and structural level) for a given
lattice/dimension, relative to other dimensions (or allotropes).
The conversion of
the chemical energy stored within a cell to electrical energy, and the
subsequent withdrawal this electrical energy into a load.
indicating the discharge characteristics of a battery system, as a
function of time.
An expression of
the speed with which a battery is being discharged, at a specific point in
Dry Cell: A cell with an immobilized electrolyte.
proportionality constant between current density and applied electric
field; also a measure of the ease with which a material is capable of
whereby the chemical energy contained within cell components is converted
to electrical energy, or conversely a reaction brought around by the
supply of electrical energy, which gets converted to chemical energy. If
only the first case is applicable, the cell is called an electrolysis
cell. If only the second scenario applies, the cell is termed a galvanic
through which an electric current may be carried through the motion of
particle of an atom having a negative charge.
The capacity for
doing work. Common forms of energy include electric energy, chemical
energy, potential energy, heat energy, magnetic energy, mechanical energy,
kinetic energy, etc. In the context of this exercise energy may be viewed
as the work performed by electric power.
The ratio of the
energy available from a battery, to its cell mass. Expressed in Joules per
charging of a storage battery keeping the battery at or near a fully
charged stage at all times.
An allotrope of
carbon in which carbon has sp2 hybridization.
High Rate Performance:
whereby a cell completely discharges in a very short period of time.
cell in which one of the two active reagents is in the gas phase and maybe
supplied from an external source.
non-uniform supply of electric charge as needed by a specific application.
The opposition or
resistance to the flow of an electric current, within a cell.
The lower density
space between the arrangement of internal components of matter on an
A particle in
solution that carries a positive or negative charge.
In the context of
this tutorial ionic conduction is the transfer of electric charge via ions
contained within an electrolytic solution.
Lattice: The regular geometric
arrangement of points in crystal space.
Battery System: The
Leclanche or zinc-carbon dry cell battery has existed for over 100 years
and has been the most widely used of all dry cell batteries because of a
combination of low cost, ready availability, and relatively strond
A term used to indicate the
current drain on a battery when power is delivered to external devices or
Load Leveling: The process aimed at
reducing the non-uniform conditions in electricity demand. Load-leveling
aims to store energy when demand is low, and use this stored energy to
meet peak demand.
Material with partially filled valence band and located in the left and
lower portion of the periodic table. Characterized by high thermal and
A phenomenon in
which a cell, operated in successive cycles to the same, but less than
full depth of discharge, temporarily experiences a depression of its
discharge voltage and subsequent loss of the remainder of its capacity at
normal voltage levels.
characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery.
The basic unit of resistance,
reactance, or impedance.
Voltage: See Working
Oxidation: The loss of electrons by a
Parallel: A term used to describe the
inter-connection of cell or batteries in which all like terminals are
Polarization: The change of the potential
of a cell or electrode via the passage of electric current.
Polymer: A solid non-metallic
(normally organic) compound of high molecular weight, the structure of
which is composed of small repeat units.
Potential: The electrical pressure
causes charge carriers to move through a substance or circuit.
The rate of transmitting current
or charge. Expressed in Watts.
Power Density: The ratio of power
available from a cell to its cell mass.
Capacity: The number of
ampere-hours a battery can deliver under specific (rate of discharge, end
voltage, temperature) conditions.
Recharge: The conversion of the
electric energy provided by an external source into chemical energy,
within a cell or battery.
Reduction: The gain of electrons by a
The opposition to
current flow; expressed in Ohms.
Separator: An ion permeable,
electronically non-conductive material, which prevents electronic contact
between electrodes of opposite polarity, within the same cell.
The inter-connection of cells or
batteries whereby, the positive terminal of the first is connected to the
negative terminal of the second, and so on. (Check this)
SLI Battery: A battery designed to
start internal combustion engines and power the electrical systems in
automobiles when the engine is not running.
Energy: The ratio of the
energy output of a battery to its weight.
Solution: A uniform mixture of
chemicals. In solution it is impossible to distinguish separate solute and
A material at its
equilibrium state. Typified by relatively low reactivity and ability to
remain in this state for longer periods of time.
Battery: A battery designed
for emergency use in the vent of main power failure.
Charge Indicator: A device
indicating the condition of the battery in terms of remaining available
Efficiency: The ratio of
average voltage during discharge to average voltage during recharge under
specified conditions of charge and discharge.
The basic unit expressing a
difference of potential.
Voltage: Electromotive force or
difference of potential. E=IR, where I is current and R is resistance.
Voltage Delay: The time delay required for
a battery to deliver the required voltage after being placed under load.
Energy: The ratio of
available energy to cell volume. Expressed in Joules per cubic centimeter.
Voltage: The typical range
of voltages of a battery during discharge.