Philosophy in Vienna 1900 [Details]


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Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

Franz Brentano (1883-1917)

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)

Ernst Mach (1838-1916)

Moritz Schlick (1882-1936)

Otto Weininger (1880-1903)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)


The Pernerstorfer Circle

Viennese philosophy at the turn of the century led the charge on the continent against the metaphysical penchant of German philosophy. Already the thought of Franz Brentano helped push Viennese thinkers toward positivistic and strictly logical forms of philosophizing. The scientist and philosopher Ernst Mach was a radical sensationalist who sought to undermine the Kantian duality between "essence" (thing-in-itself) and "appearance" by collapsing all knowledge into the domain of perception. Rudolf Carnap sought out and attempted to destroy metaphysical thought wherever it appeared in philosophical discourse. Ludwig Wittgenstein attempted to draw a strict line between the realms of what can be known with accuracy and what would always escape the grasp of reason, the "mystical."