Phylum Foraminifera (d’Orbigny, 1826)

Higher order taxonomic system is based on Pawlowski et al., 2013

Pawlowski, J., Holzman, M., and Tyszka, J.  2013.  New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: Molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropaleontology, 100:1–10.

 Fig.2_Pawlowski et al PROOF

Class Globothalamea Pawlowski, Holzmann and Tyszka, 2013

Diagnosis: Test multi-chambered, typically trochospirally enrolled but may be triserial, biserial or uniserial; chambers globular or crescent-shaped in early stage; wall agglutinated or calcareous.

Orders: Rotaliidae, Robertinida, “Textulariida”


Order “Textulariida” (Delage and Hérouard, 1896) emended

Diagnosis: Wall agglutinated, with foreign particles attached to organic lining or cemented by low magnesium calcite; possibly paraphyletic group. [The term “Textulariida” is here used only partially in the sense of the definition given by Loeblich and Tappen (1988) and includes the most of the Lituolida, the Loftusiida, and the Textularida (sensu stricto), of Kaminski, 2004.]

Orders: Lituolida, Loftusiida, Textulariidae


Class Tubothalamea

Diagnosis: Bi- or multi-chambered test with tubular chambers at least in the juvenile stage; wall agglutinated or calcareous; in ancestral forms the test is composed of a spherical proloculus followed by a spirally enrolled tubular chamber; more evolved forms have multi-chambered tests.

Order Miliolida

Foraminifera incertae sedis

Order Lagenida