References List

The references from each of the theme pages are repeated here, sorted by theme, and then by author last name. This list provides another way to access the science and evidence of health and well-being benefits provided by urban greening.




Social Strengths

Alaimo, K, TM Reischl, and JO Allen. 2010. Community Gardening, Neighborhood Meetings, and Social Capital. Journal of Community Psychology 38, 4:497-514.

Aneshenel, CS, and CA Sucoff. 1996. The Neighborhood Context of Adolescent Mental Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 37:293-310.

Armstrong, D. 2000. A Survey of Community Gardens in Upstate New York: Implications for Health Promotion and Community Development. Health and Place 6, 4:319-27.

Bellair, PS. 1997. Social Interaction and Community Crime: Examining the Importance of Neighbor Networks. Criminology 35:677-704.

Bicho, AN. 1996. The Simple Power of Multicultural Community Gardening. Community Greening Review 6:2-11.

Blair, D, CC Giesecke, and S Sherman. 1991. A Dietary, Social and Economic Evaluation of the Philadelphia Urban Gardening Project. Journal of Nutrition Education 23,4:161-167.

Bolin, K, B Lindgren, M Lindström, and P Nystedt. 2003. Investments in Social Capital-Implications of Social Interactions for the Production of Health. Social Science & Medicine 56, 12:2379-90.

Brunson, L, FE Kuo, and WC Sullivan. Sowing the Seeds of Community: Greening and Gardening in Inner-City Neighborhoods. unpublished manuscript, University of Illinois.

Case, AC, and LF Katz. 1991. The Company You Keep: The Effects of Family and Neighborhood on Disadvantaged Youths. NBER Working Paper 3705, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Coleman, JS. 1988. Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. American Journal of Sociology 94, 1:95-120.

Coley, RL, FE Kuo, and WC Sullivan. 1997. Where Does Community Grow? The Social Context Created by Nature in Urban Public Housing. Environment and Behavior 29, 4:468-492.

Cubbin, C, S Egerter, P Braveman, and V Pedregon. 2008. Where We Live Matters for Our Health: Neighborhoods and Health. Issue Brief 3 of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Commission to Build a Healthier America, 11 pages.

Cutrona, CE, DW Russell, RM Hessling, PA Brown, and V Murry. 2000. Direct and Moderating Effects of Community Context on the Well-Being of African American Women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79, 6:1088-1101.

Dinnie, E, KM Brown, and S Morris. 2013. Community, Cooperation and Conflict: Negotiating the Social Well-being Benefits of Urban Greenspace Experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning 112:1-9.

Durkheim, E. 2002. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. New York: Psychology Press, 432 pages.

Engedal, K. 1996. Mortality in the Elderly: A 3-Year Follow-Up of An Elderly Community Sample. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11, 5:467-471.

Fainstein, SS. 2005. Cities and Diversity. Urban Affairs Review 41, 1:3.

Felton, BJ, and M Shinn. 1992. Social Integration and Social Support: Moving “Social Support” Beyond the Individual Level. Journal of Community Psychology 20, 2:103-115.

Francis, M, L Cashdan, and L Paxson. 1984. Community Open Spaces: Greening Neighborhoods Through Community Action and Land Conservation. Washington D.C., Island Press.

Glover, TD. 2004. Social Capital in the Lived Experiences of Community Gardeners. Leisure Sciences 26, 2:143-162.

Halpern, D. 1995. Mental Health and the Built Environment: More Than Bricks and Mortar? London: Taylor & Francis.

Hirschfield, A, and KJ Bowers. 1997. The Effect of Social Cohesion on Levels of Recorded Crime in Disadvantaged Areas. Urban Studies 34, 8:1275-1295.

Holtgrave, DR, and RA Crosby. 2003. Social Capital, Poverty, and Income Inequality As Predictors of Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Chlamydia and AIDS Case Rates in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Infections 79, 1:62-4.

Jamison, MS. 2005. The Joys of Gardening: Collectivist and Bureaucratic Cultures in Conflict. Sociological Quarterly 26, 4:473-490.

Kawachi, I, BP Kennedy, and R Glass. 1999. Social Capital and Self-Rated Health: A Contextual Analysis. American Journal of Public Health 89, 8:1187.

Kennedy, BP, and I Kawachi. 1998. The Role of Social Capital in the Russian Mortality Crisis. World Development 26, 11:2029-2043.

Khan, NA.1999. Community Cooperation in a Voluntary Environmental Project: Some Lessons from Swansea, Wales. Community Development Journal 34, 3:205–218.

Kim, J, and R Kaplan. 2004. Physical and Psychological Factors in Sense of Community: New Urbanist Kentlands and Nearby Orchard Village. Environment and Behavior 36, 3:313-340.

Kleinhans, R, H Priemus, and G Engbersen. 2007. Understanding Social Capital in Recently Restructured Urban Neighbourhoods: Two Case Studies in Rotterdam. Urban Studies 44, 5:1069-1091.

Krenichyn, K. 2004. Women and Physical Activity in An Urban Park: Enrichment and Support Through An Ethic of Care. Journal of Environmental Psychology 24, 1:117-130.

Kuo, FE, WC Sullivan, RL Coley, and L Brunson. 1998. Fertile Ground for Community: Inner-City Neighborhood Common Spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology 26, 6: 823-851.

Kurtz, H. 2002. Differentiating Multiple Meanings of Garden and Community. Urban Geography 22, 7:656-670.

Kweon, BS, WC Sullivan, and R Angel. 1998. Green Common Spaces and the Social Integration of Inner-City Older Adults. Environment and Behavior 30, 6:832-858.

Lee, GR. 1983. Integration and Fear of Crime Among Older Persons. Journal of Gerontology 38, 6:745-50.

Lester, D, and F Moksony. 1994. The Social Correlates of Suicide in Hungary in the Elderly. European Psychiatry 9, 6:273-274.

Lin, N. 2002. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge University Press.

Lochner, KA, I Kawachi, RT Brennan, and SL Buka. 2003. Social Capital and Neighborhood Mortality Rates in Chicago. Social Science & Medicine 56, 8:1797-805.

Lofland, LH. 1973. A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space. Basic Books, New York.

Lomas, J. 1998. Social Capital and Health: Implications for Public Health and Epidemiology. Social Science & Medicine 47, 9:1181-1188.

Macionis, JJ, and LM Gerber. 2002. Sociology, Fourth Canadian Edition. Canada: Pearson.

Malakoff, D. 1995. What Good Is Community Greening? Community Greening Review 5:4-11.

Marschall, MJ, and D Stolle. 2004. Race and the City: Neighborhood Context and the Development of Generalized Trust. Political Behavior 26, 2:125-153.

McMillan, DW, and DM Chavis. 1986. Sense of Community: A Definition and Theory. Journal of Community Psychology 14:6-23.

Moffitt, TE, and E-Risk Study Team. 2002. Teen-Aged Mothers in Contemporary Britain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 43, 6:727-42.

Peters, K, B Elands, and A Buijs. 2009. Social Interactions in Urban Parks: Stimulating Social Cohesion?" Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 9, 2:93-100.

Platt, RH. 2004. Land Use and Society: Geography, Law, and Public Policy. Washington DC, Island Press, 488 pages.

Pollack, CE, and O von dem Knesebeck. 2004. Social Capital and Health Among the Aged: Comparisons Between the United States and Germany. Health & Place 10, 4:383-391.

Potapchuk, WR, JP Crocker, and WH Schechter Jr. 1997. Building Community with Social Capital: Chits and Chums or Chats with Change. National Civic Review 86, 2:129-139.

Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Ross, CE, and SJ Jang. 2000. Neighborhood Disorder, Fear, and Mistrust: The Buffering Role of Social Ties With Neighbors. American Journal of Community Psychology 28:401-420.

Ross, CE. 2000. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adult Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 41, 2:177-187.

Ruberman, W, E Weinblatt, JD Goldberg, and BS Chaudhary. 1984. Psychosocial Influences on Mortality After Myocardial Infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 311, 9:552-59.

Runyan, DK, WM Hunter, RRS Socolar, L Amaya-Jackson, D English, J Landsverk, H Dubowitz, DH Browne, SI Bangdiwala, and RM Mathew. 1998. Children Who Prosper in Unfavorable Environments: The Relationship to Social Capital. Pediatrics 101, 1:12-18.

Sabin, EP. 1993. Social Relationships and Mortality Among the Elderly. Journal of Applied Gerontology 12, 1:44-61.

Saldivar-Tanaka, L, and ME Krasny. 2004. Culturing Community Development, Neighborhood Open Space, and Civic Agriculture: The Case of Latino Community Gardens in New York City. Agriculture and Human Values 21, 4:399-412.

Sampson R, J Morenoff, and T Gannon-Rowley. 2002. Assessing "neighborhood effects": Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology 28:443-478.

Sampson, RJ, SW Raudenbush and F Earls. 1997. Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy. American Association for the Advancement of Science 277, 5328:918-924.

Schukoske, JE. 1999. Community Development Through Gardening: State and Local Policies Transforming Urban Open Space. Legislation and Public Policy 3:351-392.

Steinbach, U. 1992. Social Networks, Institutionalization, and Mortality Among Elderly People in the United States. Journal of Gerontology 47, 4:S183-90.

Stone, W, and J Hughes. 2002. Understanding Community Strengths: Can Existing Theories Provide An Overall Framework for Achieving and Identifying Strong Communities? Family Matters 62, 6:1-8.

Sullivan,WC, FE Kuo, and S DePooter. 2004. The Fruit of Urban Nature: Vital Neighborhood Spaces. Environment and Behavior 36, 5:678-700.

Takano, T, K Nakamura, and M Watanabe. 2002. Urban Residential Environments and Senior Citizens’ Longevity in Megacity Areas: The Importance of Walkable Green Spaces. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56, 12:913-16.

Taylor, AF, A Wiley, FE Kuo, and WC Sullivan. 1998. Growing Up in the Inner City. Environment and Behavior 30, 1:3-27.

Tidball, KG. 2010. Greening in the Red Zone: Green Space and Disaster Resistance, Recovery and Resilience. Anthropology News October:10-11.

Tidball, KG. 2012. Urgent Biophilia: Human-nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience. Ecology and Society 17, 2:5.

Twiss, J, J Dickinson, S Duma, T Kleinman, H Paulsen, and L Rilveria. 2003. Community Gardens: Lessons Learned From California Healthy Cities and Communities. American Journal of Public Health 93, 9:1435-1438.

Veenstra, G. 2002. Social Capital and Health (Plus Wealth, Income Inequality and Regional Health Governance). Social Science & Medicine 54, 6:849-68.

Wakefield, S, F Yeudall, C Taron, J Reynolds, and A Skinner. 2007. Growing Urban Health: Community Gardening in South-East Toronto. Health Promotion International 22, 2:92-101.

Wakefield, SEL, SJ Elliott, and DC Cole. 2007. Social Capital, Environmental Health and Collective Action: A Hamilton, Ontario Case Study. Canadian Geographer 51, 4:428-443.

Wood, L, and B Giles-Corti. 2008. Is There a Place for Social Capital in the Psychology of Health and Place? Journal of Environmental Psychology 28, 2:154-163.

Ziersch, AM, FE Baum, C MacDougall, and C Putland. 2005. Neighborhood Life and Social Capital: The Implications for Health. Social Science & Medicine 60:71–86.


Local Economics

Ackerman, F., and L. Heinzerling. 2004. Assessing Natural Resources: Price vs. Value. Renewable Resources Journal 22, 3: 16-21.

Anderson, L.M., and H.K. Cordell. 1988. Influence of Trees on Residential Property Values. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 153-164.

Boyd, J.W. 2006. The Nonmarket Benefits of Nature: What Should be Counted in Green GDP? Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper No. 06-24. Resources for the Future, Washington DC, 20 pp.

Boyer, T., and S. Polasky. 2004. Valuing Urban Wetlands: A Review of Non-Market Valuation Studies. Wetlands 24, 4: 744–755.

Correll, M.R., J.H. Lillydahl, and L.D. Singell. 1978. The Effect of Greenbelts on Residential Property Values: Some Findings on the Political Economy of Open Space. Land Economics 54, 2: 207-217.

Crompton, J.L. 2001. Parks and Economic Development. PAS Report No. 502. American Planning Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Crompton, J.L. 2001. The Impact of Parks on Property Values: A Review of the Empirical Evidence. Journal of Leisure Research 33, 1: 1-31.

de Groot, R.S., M.A. Wilson, and R.M.J. Boumans. 2002. A Typology For the Classification, Description and Valuation of Ecosystem Functions, Goods and Services. Ecological Economics 41: 393–408

Dombrow, J., M. Rodriguez, and C.F. Sirmans. 2000. The Market Value of Mature Trees in Single-Family Housing Markets. Appraisal Journal 68, 1: 39-43.

Donovan, G.H., and D.T. Butry. 2010. Trees in the City: Valuing Street Trees in Portland, Oregon. Landscape and Urban Planning 94, 1: 77-83.

Florida, R. 2005. Cities and the Creative Class. Routledge, New York, 198 pp.

Hammer, T.R., R.E. Coughlin, and E.T. Horn. 1974. The Effect of a Large Park on Real Estate Value. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 40: 274-277.

Hardie, I., and C. Nickerson. 2004. The Effect of a Forest Conservation Regulation on the Value of Subdivisions in Maryland. WP 03-01 (Revised). Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, 35 pp.

Kaplan, R., and S. Kaplan. 1989. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 340 pp.

Laverne, R.J., and K. Winson-Geideman. 2003. The Influence of Trees and Landscaping on Rental Rates at Office Buildings. Journal of Arboriculture 29, 5: 281-290.

Luttik, J. 2000. The Value of Trees, Water and Open Space as Reflected by House Prices in the Netherlands. Landscape and Urban Planning 48: 161-167.

Morales, D.J., B.N. Boyce, and R.J. Favretti. 1976. The Contribution of Trees to Residential Property Value: Manchester, Connecticut. Valuation 23, 2: 26-43.

Morales, D.J., F.R. Micha, and R.L. Weber. 1983. Two Methods of Valuating Trees on Residential Sites. Journal of Arboriculture 9: 21-24.

More, T.A., T.H. Stevens, and P.G. Allen. 1988. Valuation of Urban Parks. Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 139-152.

Nelson, N., J. Dorfman, and L. Fowler. 2002. The Potential For Community Forests to Be Self-Financing: An Hedonic Analysis of The Enhancement Value of Georgia’s Trees. University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Athens GA, 26 pp.

Payne, B.R. 1973. The Twenty-Nine Tree Home Improvement Plan. Natural History 82, 9: 74-75.

Payne, B.R., and S. Strom. 1975. The Contribution of Trees to the Appraised Value of Unimproved Residential Land. Valuation 22, 2: 36-45.

Price, C. 2003. Quantifying the Aesthetic Benefits of Urban Forestry. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 1: 123-133.

Samuelson, P.A. 1954. The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure. Review of Economics and Statistics 36, 4: 387-389.

Schroeder, T.D. 1982. The Relationship of Local Park and Recreation Services to Residential Property Values. Journal of Leisure Research 14, 3: 223-234.

Seila, A.F., and L.M. Anderson. 1982. Estimating Costs of Tree Preservation on Residential Lots. Journal of Arboriculture 8: 182-185.

Theriault, M., Y. Kestens, and F. Des Rosiers. 2002. The Impact of Mature Trees on House Values and on Residential Location Choices in Quebec City. In Rizzoli, A.E. and A.J. Jakeman (eds.), Integrated Assessment and Decision Support, Proceedings of the First Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modeling and Software Society, Volume 2. pp. 478-483.

Thorsnes, P. 2002. The Value of a Suburban Forest Preserve: Estimates from Sales of Vacant Residential Building Lots. Land Economics 78, 3: 426-441.

Tyrväinen, L., and A. Miettinen. 2000. Property Prices and Urban Forest Amenities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 39: 205-223.

Underhill, P. 1999. Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. Simon and Schuster, New York, 257 pp.

Wachter, S.M., and K.C. Gillen. 2006. Public Investment Strategies: How They Matter for Neighborhoods in Philadelphia. Working Paper, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 12 pp.

Whitehead, T., D. Simmonds, and J. Preston. 2006. The Effect of Urban Quality Improvements on Economic Activity. Journal of Environmental Management 80, 1: 1-12.

Wolf, K.L. 2003. Public Response to the Urban Forest in Inner-City Business Districts. Journal of Arboriculture 29, 3: 117-126.

Wolf, K.L. 2005. Business District Streetscapes, Trees and Consumer Response. Journal of Forestry 103 8: 396-400.

Wolf, K.L. 2005. The Urban Forest in the Roadsides: Public Values and Transportation Design. In: Promoting Professional Tree Care, Proceedings of the 9th National Conference of the International Society of Arboriculture, Australia Chapter (ISAAC). ISAAC, Launceston, Tasmania, 9 pp.

Wolf, K.L. 2005. Trees In the Small City Retail Business District: Comparing Resident and Visitor Perceptions. Journal of Forestry 103, 8: 390-395.

Wolf, K.L. 2007 (August). City Trees and Property Values. Arborist News 16, 4: 34-36.

Wolf, K.L. 2009. More in Store: Research on City Trees and Retail. Arborist News 18, 2: 22-27.

Wolf, K.L. 2009. Strip Malls, City Trees, and Community Values. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35, 1: 33-40.


Crime and Fear

Anthony, K.H., S. Weidemann, and Y. Chin. 1990. Housing Perceptions of Low Income Single Parents. Environment and Behavior 22, 2:147-182.

Baker, C. F. 1984. Sensory Overload and Noise in the ICU: Sources of Environmental Stress. Critical Care Quarterly 6, 4:66-80.

Baum, A., and S. Koma. 1976. Differential Response to Anticipated Crowding: Psychological Effects of Social and Spatial Density. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:526-536.

Bennett, T. 1989. Burglars’ Choice of Targets. In: D. Evans, and D. Herbert (eds.), The Geography of Crime (pp. 176-192). Routledge, New York.

Bennett, T., and R. Wright. 1984. Burglars on Burglary: Prevention and the Offender. Gower, Brookfield, Vermont, 197 pp.

Brady, K.T., H. Myrick, and S. McElroy. 1998. The Relationship Between Substance Use Disorders, Impulse Control Disorders, and Pathological Aggression. American Journal on Addictions 7:221-230.

Braga, A.A., and B.J. Bond. 2008. Policing Crime and Disorder Hot Spots: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Criminology 46, 3:577-607.

Bratton, W.J., and G.L. Kelling. 2006. There are No Cracks in the Broken Windows. National Review, broadcast February 28, 2006.

Brower, S., K. Dockett, and R.B. Taylor. 1983. Residents’ Perceptions of Territorial Features and Perceived Local Threat. Environment and Behavior 15:419-437.

Brown, B.B., and D.L. Bentley. 1993. Residential Burglars Judge Risk: The Role of Territoriality. Journal of Environmental Psychology 13:51-61.

Brown, B.B., and I. Altman. 1983. Territoriality, Defensible Space and Residential Burglary: An Environmental Analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology 3:203-220.

Brunson, L. 1999. Resident Appropriation of Defensible Space in Public Housing: Implications for Safety and Community. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, IL.

Brunson, L., F.E. Kuo, and W.C. Sullivan. 2001. Resident Appropriation of Defensible Space in Public Housing: Implications for Safety and Community. Environment and Behavior 33, 5:626-652.

Caprara, G.V., and P. Renzi. 1981. The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis vs. Irritability. Recherches de Psychologie Sociale 3:75-80.

Chaudhury, H. 1994. Territorial Personalization and Place Identity: A Case Study in Rio Grande Valley, Texas. In: A.D. Seidel (ed.), Banking on Design (pp. 46-54). EDRA, Oklahoma City, OK.

Coley, R.L., F.E. Kuo, and W.C. Sullivan. 1997. Where Does Community Grow? The Social Context Created By Nature in Urban Public Housing. Environment and Behavior 29:468-492.

Crewe, K. 2001. Linear Parks and Urban Neighbourhoods: A Study of the Crime Impact of the Boston South-West Corridor. Journal of Urban Design 6, 3:245-264.

Cromwell, P.F., J.N. Olson, and D.W. Avary. 1991. Breaking and Entering: An Ethnographic Analysis of Burglary. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 130 pp.

Crowe, T.D., and D.L. Zahm. 1994. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. NAHB Land Development Fall: 22-27.

Dodge, K.A., and D. Schwartz. 1997. Social Information Processing Mechanisms in Aggressive Behavior. In: D.M. Stoff, J. Breiling, and J.D. Maser (eds.), Handbook of Antisocial Behavior (pp. 171-180). John Wiley, New York.

Donnerstein, E., and D.W. Wilson. 1976. Effects of Noise and Perceived Control on Ongoing and Subsequent Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34:774-781.

Donovan, G.H, and J.P. Prestemon, J.P. 2012. The Effect of Trees on Crime in Portland, Oregon. Environment and Behavior 44, 1:3-30.

Dubow, F., and D. Emmons. 1981. The Community Hypothesis. In: D.A. Lewis (ed.), Reactions to Crime. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California.

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Fisher, B., and J.L. Nasar. 1995. Fear Spots in Relation to Microlevel Physical Cues: Exploring the Overlooked. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:214-239.

Fisher, B.S., and J.L. Nasar. 1992. Fear of Crime in Relation to Three Exterior Site Features: Prospect, Refuge, and Escape. Environment and Behavior 24, 1:35-65.

Gobster, P.H., and L.M. Westphal. 2004. The Human Dimensions of Urban Greenways: Planning for Recreation and Related Experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning 68:147–165.

Greenbaum, S.D. 1982. Bridging Ties at the Neighborhood Level. Social Networks 4:367–384.

Greenberg, S.W., W.M. Rohe, and J.R. Williams. 1982. Safety in Urban Neighborhoods—A Comparison of Physical Characteristics and Informal Territorial Control in High- and Low-Crime Neighborhoods. Population and Environment 53:141–165.

Hanyu, K. 2000. Visual Properties and Affective Appraisals in Residential Areas in Daylight. Journal of Environmental Psychology 20:273-284.

Herzog, T.R., and G.E. Kutzli. 2002. Preference and Perceived Danger in Fields/Forest Settings. Environment and Behavior 34, 6:819-835.

Herzog, T.R., and J.A. Flynn-Smith. 2001. Preference and Perceived Danger as a Function of the Perceived Curvature, Length, and Width of Urban Alleys. Environment and Behavior 33, 5:653-666.

Herzog, T.R., and K.K. Chernick. 2000. Tranquility and Danger in Urban and Natural Settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 20:29-39.

Hull, R.B., and A. Harvey. 1989. Explaining the Emotion People Experience in Suburban Parks. Environment and Behavior 21, 3:323-345.

Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, New York, 458 pp.

Jeffery, C.R. 1971. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Sage, Beverly Hills CA, 290 pp.

Jorgensen, A., J. Hitchmough, and T. Calvert. 2002. Woodland Spaces and Edges: Their Impact on Perception of Safety and Preference. Landscape and Urban Planning 60:135-150.

Kaplan, R., and J.F. Talbot. 1988. Ethnicity and Preference for Natural Settings: A Review and Recent Findings. Landscape and Urban Planning 15:107-117.

Kaplan, S. 1995. The Restorative Benefits of Nature: Toward an Integrative Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology 15:169-182.

Kelling, G.L., and C. Coles. 1996. Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. Free Press, New York, 319 pp.

Koskela, H., and R. Pain. 2000. Revisiting Fear and Place: Women's Fear of Attack and the Built Environment. Geoforum 31:269-280.

Kuo, F.E. 2003. The Role of Arboriculture in a Healthy Social Ecology. Journal of Arboriculture 29, 3:148-155.

Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan. 2001. Aggression and Violence in the Inner City: Effects of Environment Via Mental Fatigue. Environment and Behavior 33, 4:543-571.

Kuo, F.E., and W.C. Sullivan. 2001. Environment and Crime in the Inner City: Does Vegetation Reduce Crime? Environment and Behavior 33, 3:343-367.

Kuo, F.E., M. Bacaicoa, and W.C. Sullivan. 1998. Transforming Inner-City Landscapes: Trees, Sense of Safety, and Preference. Environment and Behavior 30:28-59.

Kuo, F.E., W.C. Sullivan, R.L. Coley, and L. Brunson. 1998. Fertile Ground for Community: Inner-City Neighborhood Common Spaces. American Journal of Community Psychology 26:823-851.

Lorenzo, A.B., and D. Wims. 2004. Do Designed Landscapes Deter Crime? Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 117:297-300.

Luymes, D.T., and K. Tamminga. 1995. Integrating Public Safety and Use Into Planning Urban Greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning 33, 1-3:391-400.

Maas, J., P. Spreeuwenberg, M. Van Winsum-Westra, R.A. Verheij, S. de Vries, and P.P. Groenewegen. 2009. Is Green Space in the Living Environment Associated With People’s Feelings of Social Safety? Environment and Planning A 41, 7:1763-1777.

Macdonald, J.E., and R. Gifford. 1989. Territorial Cues and Defensible Space Theory: The Burglar’s Point of View. Journal of Environmental Psychology 9:193-205.

Markovitz, P. 1995. Pharmacotherapy of Impulsivity, Aggression, and Related Disorders. In: E. Hollander, and D.J. Stein (eds.), Impulsivity and Aggression (pp. 263-287). John Wiley, New York.

Martinko, M.J., and K.L. Zellars. 1998. Toward a Theory of Workplace Violence and Aggression: A Cognitive Appraisal perspective. In: R.W. Griffin (ed.), Dysfunctional Behavior in Organizations: Violent and Deviant Behavior (pp. 1-42). JAI, Greenwich, Connecticut.

Merry, S.E. 1981. Defensible Space Undefended. Urban Affairs Quarterly 16:397-422.

Michael, S.N., and R.B. Hull. 1994. Effects of Vegetation on Crime in Urban Parks. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, College of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Department of Forestry, Blacksburg, 46 pp.

Michael, S.N., R.B. Hull, and D.L. Zahm. 2001. Environmental Factors Influencing Auto Burglary: A Case Study. Environment and Behavior 33, 3:368-388.

Müderrisoglu, H., and Z. Demir. 2004. The Relationship Between Perceived Beauty and Safety in Urban Recreation Parks. Journal of Applied Sciences 4:72-77.

Nasar, J. 1998. The Evaluative Image of the City. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 182 pp.

Nasar, J., and D. Julian. 1995. The Psychological Sense of Community in the Neighborhood. Journal of the American Planning Association 61, 2:178-184.

Nasar, J.L. 1982. A Model Relating Visual Attributes in the Residential Environment to Fear of Crime. Journal of Environmental Systems 11:247-255.

Nasar, J.L., and B. Fisher. 1993. ‘Hot Spots' of Fear and Crime: A Multi-Method Investigation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 13:187-206.

Nasar, J.L., and K. Jones, K. 1997. Landscapes of Fear and Stress. Environment and Behavior 29:291-323.

Nasar, J.L., B. Fisher, and M. Grannis. 1993. Proximate Physical Cues to Fear of Crime. Landscape and Urban Planning 26:161-176.

Nassauer, J.I. 1988. Landscape Care: Perceptions of Local People in Landscape Ecology and Sustainable Development. In: Landscape and Land Use Planning: Proceedings from the 1988 International Federation of Landscape Architects World Congress (pp. 27-41). American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC.

Nassauer, J.I. 1995. Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames. Landscape Journal 14:161-170.

Newman, O. 1972. Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design. Macmillan, New York, 264 pp.

Perkins, D.D., A. Wandersman, R.C. Rich, and R.B.Taylor. 1993. The Physical Environment of Street Crime: Defensible Space, Territoriality and Incivilities. Journal of Environmental Psychology 13:29-49.

Perkins, D.D., P. Florin, R.C. Rich, A. Wandersman, and D.M. Chavis. 1990. Participation and the Social and Physical Environment of Residential Blocks: Crime and Community Context. American Journal of Community Psychology 181:83–115.

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Active Living

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Safe Streets

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