Corrections and comments

The portion of the dictionary that is posted on this web site has been updated to reflect the corrections listed below.

Front matter
'Design, organization, and history...'

Rude 1996 used the term allative for the case suffix -yaw and the term versative for the case suffix -kan. He did not use the term dative. [posted April 2010]

Chapter A

The correct referent of this plant term is 'nettles' (Urtica dioica). Thanks to Gene Hunn for pointing this out (6-15-10): "Devil's club (Oplopanax horridum) is by-and-large restricted to forested swampy areas on the west slope of the Cascades out to the coast." Bruce Rigsby noted (6-21-10) that "Nez Perce 'fire' (noun) is 'aala, and that warrants me to regard Yakama ala'ala as built on the same old root/stem and to analyse it as 'little fires'. I agree with Gene that it's more appropriate to 'stinging nettles' than 'devil's club'." In Gunther's Upper Cowlitz work, she too identified this term as 'nettles'. [posted 7-1-10]


Gene Hunn (6-15-10) identifies amít as "the golden-mantled ground squirrel (now known as Spermophilus lateralis), contrasting with c'iiɬá [ts'iiɬá] (onomatopoetic), the smaller picket-post Townsend's and Washington Ground Squirrels (now known as Spermophilus townsendii and S. washingtoni) and wáshki, the larger, bushy-tailed California ground squirrel (now known as Spermophilus beecheyi)." [posted 6-29-10]


The translation of the example sentence should read:
''Give each of these two a digging stick so that they can go dig for breadroot for us.'' [posted Apr 2010]


The last word of the first example sentence should be spelled tɬ'yawitnɨmí. [posted 7-1-10]

Chapter Ch
chákwɬk-, chákwtɬk-

In the third sentence of this entry, kumánk should be spelled kuumánk. [posted 2-19-11]


The headword should be spelled cháwisklik- and the correct spelling of the word in the sentence is cháwisklik. The correct spelling of the derived form in this entry is likewise chawisklikáwaas. [posted 9-29-10]


One word in the example sentence is misspelled. It should be: skuuliɬáma [posted Mar 2010]

Chapter I
íkush pamánk

This is best treated as one word: ikushpamánk. The example sentence too should be corrected to: Tún íchi iwá ikushpamánk? [posted 8-4-10]

Chapter I
ɨnwím, ɨnwimá subentry

The headword is better translated 'last year's, yearling'. The translation of the sentence in the subentry should be 'His car is last year's (model)...' [posted 2-19-11]

Chapter K

A portion of the photo caption should read: " with wooden handle (top) and one without (bottom)." [posted Mar 2010]


In the second example sentence, kumánxi should be spelled kuumánxi. [posted 2-19-11]


The headword should be spelled kuumánk. The example sentence in this entry also contains this word, which should also be corrected to kuumánk. [posted 2-19-11]

Chapter KW

In the translation of the first sentence under 'slight', "there's appears" should be "there appears". [posted Mar 2010]


This word is a variant of kuumánk. [posted 2-19-11]

Chapter KW'

Gene Hunn comments: "The "bullhead" is a freshwater sculpin of the genus Cottus. There are a number of species, though all look a lot alike. It is considered a "doctor fish," i.e., a twáti, and a "weather changer," i.e., a xuupɬá, if disrespected (cf. Nch'i-Wana, pg. 165). Note that I heard the "l" as simple rather than barred. I suspect -ɬa is correct, however, though what might it be the agent of, i.e., kw'ash?" Good question, Gene. We don't know either. [posted 6-29-10]


Gene Hunn comments (6-15-10): "I recorded it as kw'áykw'ay, but I could have misheard it. I believe this refers to the long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus), which resembles a wren only in having a thin, curved beak. The curlew is a large very long-billed shorebird that nests across the open Columbia plateau where there is a cover of thin grasses. A characteristic bird of spring where one went to dig roots. "Curlew" is onomatopoetic." Virginia does not recognize Numenius americanus as the referent of kw'áykw'ay, but this is a term she herself has only heard in the Waxpush story referenced in the dictionary. Gene goes on to say: "I recall also that kw'aykw'ay-wáakuɬ was a term for a pick-axe while kw'aykw'aynmí núshnu is the shooting-star flower (Dodecatheon spp.). [I note also that in my Nch'i-Wana appendix I had a glottalized front k for the flower and a glottalized back k for the bird. Obviously I mixed up glottalized front and back k. Front is no doubt correct.]" [posted 6-29-10]

Chapter M

Gene Hunn (6-15-10) comments "Pg. 109 photo is of sikáwya [lúksh in CR Sahaptin] (Lomatium canbyi), not mámɨn (Lomatium piperi). I can tell by the leaves and the root." [posted 7-1-10]


The Sahaptin sentence should end in a period. [posted Mar 2010]

Chapter P

Gene Hunn (6-15-10) comments: "literally 'widow' / 'widower', for the 'wind flower' (Sisyrinchium inflatum). This may be a calque on an alternative English vernacular term for this flower, i.e., 'grass-widow.' When I asked for a name for it I just got 'áwtya áy latít,' 'just a flower'." [posted 7-1-10]


The translation of the first sentence should read: "Sadness overcame him." [posted Apr 2010]

Chapter N

Cf wáwk'a(n)- [posted Apr 2010]

Chapter S

Gene Hunn (6-15-10) writes: "The photo on pg. 164 is mámɨn (Lomatium piperi). The 'shaggy root' is characteristic of Lomatium piperi, not of immaturity, in my experience." [posted 7-1-10]


Gene Hunn (6-15-10) comments: "This may be a term applied to several species of small onions of the lithosol (shám) habitat. The species in the picture looks like Allium macrum. I learned to call these shámamwi or shámamuy (CR Sahaptin), perhaps an allusion to the characteristic habitat, and shíshaak at Umatilla. These were distinguished from the taller wild onions of wet spots, which I recorded as kw'láwi (Allium douglasii), and the taller, widespread Allium acuminatum, called tanán sháak, to distinguish them from domestic onions, now known as sháak, a type of historic referential shift documented in many Native American languages. However, I am not entirely confident in my onion taxonomy here." [posted 7-1-10]

Chapter SH

One word in the example sentence should be corrected to: ikushpamánk. [posted 7-1-10]


The translation of the second sentence should read: "The old man is blowing on the hot soup." [posted Apr 2010]


(from Gene Hunn, 6-15-10) The correct scientific name is Leymus cinereus. [posted 7-1-10]

Chapter T

The translation given for tawyíit is incorrect. It should be killdeer, as shown in the photo. Thanks to Bob Hsu for noting that the photo of the bird did not match the English term given for this entry. Gene Hunn also noted this, and added (6-15-10): "The CR Sahaptin term for killdeer is tít, onomatopoetic. I believe tawyíit is the NW Sahaptin equivalent. I learned to call the spotted sandpiper wítwit, also onomatopoetic." In a subsequent message, Gene added: "I've checked my early notes on "killdeer" and have tawyíit from Ambrose Smartlowit and the JOM prototype dictionary, but later a denial of that equation by Hazel and Don Umtuch. James Selam called them tít, though there are a few complications in my early data. However, I suspect tawyíit is correct for NW Sahaptin killdeer, but not for spotted sandpiper. I have Josephine Andrews (NW Sahaptin) offering twíttwit but my CR consultants all reporting wítwit, both of which are perfect onomatopoetic renderings." [posted 6-29-10]


The translation should be 'bump, brush, touch accidentally'.[posted 9-29-10]

Chapter W

The part of speech should be (n), and the translation 'brush, dense undergrowth'. [posted 9-29-10]


The translation of the first sentence should be 'We elders grew up whipped.' [posted 10-29-17]

wátkwna-, watkwnanúu-

The translation of the sentence in this entry should be 'The woman went to confront her rival.' [posted 10-29-17]


The translation of the sentence in this entry should be 'She's chopping off branches with an axe for kindling.' [posted 10-29-17]


A better translation of this verb is 'freeze stiff in wind'. The translation of the sentence in this entry should be 'The cold wind is making the laundry freeze stiff.' [posted 10-29-17]


A better translation of this verb is 'quickly go out, leave, depart, flow out'. A better translation of the first sentence in this entry is 'He's hurrying outside.' [posted 10-29-17]


Another translation, perhaps the most natural, of the first sentence in this entry is 'He's holding his hand.' [posted 2-19-11]


The translation of the headword should be 'stay with, move in with, move in on, encroach on'. [posted 2-19-11]


In the subentry pawítk, a word in the second example sentence is misspelled. It should be spelled napwiinanák. [posted 9-29-10]

Chapter X

Gene Hunn (6-15-10) points out that the scientific name of the plant shown is Balsamorhiza sagittata, and adds "Crocidium multicaule is quite different. It is a tiny yellow daisy-like flower, one of the first of spring. The young flower stalks and leaf petioles of the balsamroot are indeed a favorite "Indian celery," but Crocidium would not have been so used." [posted 7-1-10]


Gene Hunn (6-15-10) points out that the correct scientific name of xásya is Lomatium grayi. xásya is not synonymous with xamsí; the latter is correctly identified in the dictionary as Lomatium grayi. [posted 7-1-10]

Chapter Y

The correct translation of yiityíit is uncertain. Virginia is not sure exactly what kind of shorebird this term refers to, possibly spotted sandpiper. [posted 6-29-10]

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