Health and Income Equity
D. Income inequality and social problems, especially violence and homicide, and social cohesion

Income inequality in a population appears to be associated with many social factors, and these papers demonstrate some of those related to violence, that are linked with measures of community cohesion. Studies support the key position of income inequality related to homicide across nations, within nations metropolitan areas, as well as within cities. 

1. Kennedy BP, Kawachi I, Prothrow SD, Lochner K, Gupta V. Social capital, income inequality, and firearm violent crime. Social Science and Medicine 1998; 47(1):7-17 

2. Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D. Social capital, income inequality and mortality. American Journal of Public Health 1997; 87: 1491-8

3. Gilligan J. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. New York: G.P. Putnam, 1996.

4. James O. Juvenile violence in a winner-looser culture. London: Free Association Books, 1995.

5. Hsieh CC, Pugh MD. Poverty, income inequality, and violent crime: a meta-analysis of recent aggregate data studies. Criminal Justice Review 1993;18:182-202. 

6. Wilson M, Daly M. Life expectancy, economic inequality, homicide, and reproductive timing in Chicago neighbourhoods.British Medical Journal 1997; 314: 1271-4.

7. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997; 277: 918-924

8. Wilkinson RG. Health and civic society in Eastern Europe before 1989. In: The East-West life expectancy gap in Europe. Edited by C. Hertzman, S. Kelly, M. Bobak. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1996.

9. Blau J, Blau P. The costs of inequality: metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review 1982; 47: 114-129

10.Krohn MD. Inequality, unemployment and crime: A Cross-National Analysis. Sociological Quarterly 1976; 17: 303-13

11. Crutchfield R. Labor stratification and violent crime. Social Forces 1989; 68: 489-512

12. Braithwaite J, Braithwaite V. The effect of income inequality and social democracy on homicide. British Journal of Criminology 1980; 20 (1): 45-53

13. Krahn H, Hartnagel TF, Gartrell JW. Income inequality and homicide rates: cross-national data and criminological theories. Criminology 1986; 24: 269-295

14. Wilkinson RG. Income, inequality and social cohesion. American Journal of Public Health 1997 504-6 

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