Workshop: Innovation in Urban Freight

February 6-7, 2012

Seattle, Washington, USA

Workshop Presentations

Urban Goods and Smart Growth Literature Review [PPT]
Erica J Wygonik, PhD Candidate, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington
[Abstract] While recent urban planning efforts have focused on the management of growth into developed areas, the research community has not examined the impacts of these development patterns on urban goods movement. Successful implementation of growth strategies has multiple environmental and social benefits but also raises the demand for intraurban goods movement, potentially increasing conflicts between modes of travel and worsening air quality. Because urban goods movement is critical for economic vitality, understanding the relationship between smart growth and goods movement is necessary to develop appropriate policies.
This paper reviews the academic literature and summarizes the results of guided interviews to identify the existing gaps in the state of knowledge and suggest important future research topics in five sub-areas of smart growth related to goods movement: 1) access, parking, and loading zones; 2) road channelization, bicycle, and pedestrian facilities; 3) land use; 4) logistics; and 5) network system management.
Keeping Things Moving
Barb Ivanov, Co-Director Freight Systems Division, Washington State Department of Transportation [PPT]
Cristina Van Valkenburgh, Mobility Programs Manager, Seattle Department of Transportation, Policy and Planning Division [PPT]
Bari Bookout, Director of Commercial Strategy, Port of Seattle [PPT]
Microsimulating Truck Emissions and Population Exposure [PPT]
Glareh Amirjamshidi, PhD Candidate, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A4
[Abstract] Air pollution is a major health issue for Ontarians, especially those living adjacent to congested freeways in the City of Toronto. This research builds an integrated tool that models traffic at the individual vehicle level, estimates individual link emissions from on-road vehicle sources, estimates how those emissions are dispersed through the atmosphere; and finally estimates the exposed population at times of peak emissions. The study shows that within the study area, emissions are highest on the high capacity roadways, and higher in the peak direction of traffic. However, pollution concentrations at zone centroids are still within recommended levels by Environment Canada. The modelling system is also used to evaluate scenarios showing significant NOx and HC reduction when medium duty diesel trucks are converted to low emission vehicles. This integrated model is a promising tool for assessing the impacts of new technologies and scenarios on network emissions.
Urban Freight Transport Policies in Rome: Lessons Learned and the Road Ahead [PPT]
Agostino Nuzzolo, Department of Enterprise Engineering, Tor Vergata Univerasity of Rome, Italy, EU
Antonio Comi, Department of Enterprise Engineering, Tor Vergata Univerasity of Rome, Italy, EU
[Abstract] The paper, starting from the analyses of the city logistics policies and of the methodologies for their assessment, focuses on actions implemented in the inner area of Rome in the last ten years in order to improve the city livability and the freight distribution. The paper also provides an insight on the effectiveness of such a regulation. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1999 and 2008 and on the use of a modeling system that supports the definition of forthcoming actions.
The GAZ project: Achieving More Energy Efficient and Environmental Friendly Freight Transport in Cities [PPT]
Tomas Levin, SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
Trond Foss, SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
Terje Tretvik, SINTEF Technology and Society, Trondheim, Norway
[Abstract] Freight delivery is vital service to urban areas, but the delivery of goods also has negative consequences for citizens and the climate. Atmospheric emissions, noise and resuspension of dust are all negative impacts associated with freight transport. Reducing the amount of freight could reduce negative impacts, but this will also have a negative impact on urban city centres. Thus the question is: Is it possible to move the same amount of goods and still reduce the negative impacts associated with the transports? In the Green Activity Zones (GAZ) project this is studied in the context of existing low emission zones and utilization of vehicle technology to report emissions to enhance environmental performance. For the GAZ project to succeed it is crucial to understand vehicle emissions, identify actors that can contribute to more climate and environmentally friendly behaviour and finally understand the mechanisms to induce the wanted behaviour.
Challenges of Moving Freight in Urban Environment
John Creighton, Commissioner, Port of Seattle [PPT]
Xiaoling Huang, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China [PPT]
Terry Finn, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad [PPT]
Waste Reverse Collection Management in Tainan
Cheng-Chang Lin
, Professor, National Cheng Kung University [PPT]
[Abstract] Municipal solid waste is a waste type consisting of everyday items residents consume and discard. It composes various categories which are kitchen/food, yard, recyclables, appliances/furniture, and garbage from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources, but does not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and sewage sludge. The solid waste management is to systematic control of waste generation, waste handling and separation at the source, collection, separation and processing of solid waste, transport, disposal, and energy generation. The waste reduction is the most preferred management technique, followed by reuse and recycling, then incineration with energy recovery, and least preferred landfilling. However, the freight transport planning for solid waste is an integrated function of municipal solid waste management. It is to design an infrastructure of processing facilities and disposal sites in the strategic level, acquire and maintain a fleet of collection trucks in the tactical level, and determine the waste collection truck routing and scheduling in the operational level with the goals of no harm to the environments and the most cost effective. Our research scope is to study an integrated fleet composition tactical and collection routing and scheduling operational plan. The planning process involves not only the functional dimension of tactical and operational decisions, but also the institutional dimension of share responsibility of government, commercial, institutional and industrial sources. It requires public and private cooperative initiatives. First, we studied the freight operations plan for residential source. Subsequently, we studied the operations sensitivity on institution responsibility sharing. In this study, we used Tainan city for our numerical testing.
Creative Solutions to Planned Conflict: Functional Classification, Freight, and Urban Form [PPT]
Nicholas Fortey, Federal Highway Administration, Salem, Oregon, 
Deborah Redman, Metro, Portland, Oregon
[Abstract] Functional classification, the designation of roads into a hierarchy based on design and operation has long been a mainstay of transportation planning practice. Most urban areas in the United States have adopted the Federal Highway Administration functional classification guidelines. These guidelines roughly divide streets by their place on a continuum of providing land access and traffic mobility, creating three broad categories of local streets, collectors, and arterials. These guideline shave not been updated in over two decades, despite significant changes in approaches to street design. Recent years have seen the rise in interest of context sensitive design, which aims to better link roadway design to the landscape and by so doing to preserve and enhance historic and scenic values and enhance a community’s sense of place. While several urban areas explored more finely grained approaches to roadway classification which more explicitly emphasize the existing and proposed land use patterns and desired operation of the roadway, the basic framework of the functional classification system remained unchanged resulting from a widely held belief that the existing classification and design guidelines were sufficiently flexible to allow the necessary creativity to modify roadway designs without reducing safety.
While there has been substantial discussion of accommodating flexible design with the existing classification system, this discussion has only peripherally involved the need to consider truck operations. More important, there has been very little discussion about an equally vexing problem of accommodating trucks through street classification hierarchies. The case of freight street classification is a more complex one than traditional hierarchy (even for multimodal facilities) due to the different freight service needs of various land parcels, the need to provide through-routes for trucks, the greater distance associated with out-of-direction travel due to higher geometric requirements, and the complex interactions of the land-transportation-economy triad relationship that makes predicting future freight demand difficult. Adding to these design and functional conundrums is the growing conflict between existing development patterns, traffic calming and livability solutions on one hand, and the need to plan for over-dimensional truck access through an unimpeded "envelope."
This paper provides background on the federal functional classification guidelines and specifically the National Network and National Highway System designation process and indicates how planning discrepancies can occur in street classification. Indeed, the antiquated hierarchy and regulatory approach does not adequately reflect the current planning complexities that urban areas find themselves involved with on a project and regional planning basis. Using the Portland metro area as a case study, the paper makes the case for the need for a more flexible approach to truck route designation to better accommodate freight and livability needs. This paper will identify areas where passionate stakeholders may be able to find common ground on these contentious and complex issues, including fair funding, safe and practical design, actual implementation, and economic vitality.
Challenges of Data and Modeling [PPT]
Matthew J. Roorda, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada
Freight Trends and Urban Implications [PPT]
Joe BryanPB Freight & Logistics
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