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abruptio placentae: premature separation of the placenta from the uterus

ABO incompatibility: an immune reaction that occurs two blood samples of different, incompatible ABO types are mixed together; fever, jaundice, and hemolytic anemia can result

adequate intake (AI): one of the DRIs (dietary reference intakes);intakes greater than or equal to the AI are likely adequate

arachidonic acid (ARA): a very long chain fatty acid (C20:4n-6) that is found in breastmilk

biliary atresia: a blockage in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder; treatment usually involves the Kasai procedure (connecting the liver to the small intestine) before 10-12 weeks of age, liver transplant is sometimes necessary

botulism: a rare but serious illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): a chronic lung disorder that is most common among children who were born prematurely, with low birth weights, and who received prolonged mechanical ventilation; nutritional consequences can include feeding difficulties, slow growth, and increased energy needs

children with special health care needs: children “who have or are at increased risk for chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions and who require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally.” (McPherson et al, 1998)

colostrum: the first liquid secreted by the mammary gland a few days after childbirth. It has more protein and immunogloblins than breastmilk, and contains antibodies responsible for immunity in the newborn

Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) of the American Dietetic Association (ADA): the accrediting body for dietitians, and protects the term “Registered Dietitian – RD"

corrected age: the number of weeks old the baby is minus the number of weeks early the baby was born (40 weeks – number of weeks gestation at birth)

cytomegalovirus (CMV): a herpes-type virus that typically causes disease in people with impaired immunity; primary CMV infection in pregnant women can cause harm to the developing fetus

docosahexaeonic acid (DHA): a very long chain fatty acid (C22:6n-3) that is found in breastmilk

dumping syndrome: rapid emptying of the the stomach contents into the duodenum and jejunum

eiosinophilic esophagitis: a chronic inflammation of the esophagus; symptoms include dysphagia, abdominal pain, and vomiting; treatment is generally maternal avoidance of cow’s milk and soy (or other proteins that are not tolerated), and/or use of an amino acid-based formula

eligibility cycle: an eligibility period for maternity support services that begins during pregnancy and continues to the end of the mo nth in which with sixtieth-day postpregnancy occurs (this is the Federal definition)

elimination diet: a food pattern that omits one or more foods suspected of causing or known to cause an allergic reaction or adverse effect

esophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus, frequently caused by gastroesophageal reflux

estimated date of delivery (EDD) or estimated date of confinement (EDC): anticipated due date for delivery of the baby; calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period

estimated energy requirement (EER): the average dietary energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person of a given gender, age, weight, height, and physical activity level

epicanthal folds: skinfolds covering the inner corners of the eyes

factorial approach: with a factorial approach, individual components of nutrient needs (including needs for metabolism, tissue synthesis, storage, etc.) are added together to provide an estimate of needs; in the case of protein needs during lactation, the protein "cost" of milk production was added to the estimated needs for non-lactating women.

failure to thrive: refers to slowed rate of growth, usually describes weight loss, decreased rate of weight gain and/or decreased linear growth; also called undernutrition, delayed growth, growth faltering, and failure to grow

food protein enteropathy: usually an intolerance of cow's milk protein, symptoms can include malabsorption, diarrhea, and vomiting; the disorder generally resolves after one to two years; sensitivity to eggs, rice, poultry, fish, and shellfish have also been described

fructosamine: serum fructosamine generally reflects the state of glycemic control for the preceding 2 weeks; the compound is formed by the glycosylation or serum proteins (mainly albumin); this laboratory measure is thought to offer some value in the assessment of glycemic control during pregnancy (e.g., determining control at the time of conception); normal values vary, depending on serum albumin concentration

galactosemia: a genetic metabolic disorder in which an individual is unable to metabolize galactose. Untreated, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, cataracts, mental retardation, and septicemia can occur. Treatment requires the use of a galactose-free formula (e.g., soy protein isolate); breastfeeding, standard infant formula, and most lactose-free formulas are contraindicated.

gastroesophageal reflux: regurgitation of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, where they can be aspirated; often results from a failure of the esophageal sphincter to close; commonly leads to feeding problems in infants and children with neuromuscular disorders

gavage: method of feeding an infant through a small tube inserted through the mouth or nose into the stomach

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a genetic enzyme defect that results in the breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) when the person is exposed to the stress of infection or certain drugs

glucose challenge test (GCT): screening test for gestational diabetes; plasma or serum glucose concentration is measured 1 hour after a 50-gram oral glucose load; gestational diabetes is identified by a threshold value >140 mg/dl (80% of women) or >130 mg/dl (90% of women)

glycosuria: the presence of glucose in the urine

growth factors: growth factors found in human milk include epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), insulinlike growth factors (IGFs), interleukins, transforming growth factor (TGF)–alpha, TGF-beta, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)

hemorrhage: excessive bleeding; postpartum hemorrhage is defined as bleeding in excess of 500 mL after a vaginal delivery or 1000 mL after a cesarean delivery during the first 24 hours after birth

HTLV-1 infection: an infection caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1; the virus has been implicated in diseases including HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, and a virus cancer link for leukemia; transmission can occur from mother to child; by sexual contact; and through exposure to contaminated blood

hyponatremia: serum sodium concentration <135 mEq/L; signs and symptoms can include neurologic dysfunction (e.g., headache, vomiting, irritability, seizures), and (less frequently) cardovascular and musculoskeletal findings; causes include excessive free water intake, excessive sodium losses (e.g., with diarrhea or renal disorders), inadequate sodium intake

kwashiorkor: dietary protein deficiency marked by hypoalbuminemia, anemia, edema, pot belly, depigmentation of the skin, loss of hair or change in hair color to red, and bulky stools containing undigested food

LMP: abbreviation for last menstrual period; date is used to calculate gestational age

macrosomia: birthweight greater than 10 lb or 4.5 kg; has been associated with obstetric complications, birth trauma, and higher rates of neonatal morbidity/mortality

oliguria: urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/hour in infants

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): diagnostic test for gestational diabetes; plasma glucose concentration is measured at specified intervals (1-, 2-, and 3-hours) after a 100-gram or 75-gram glucose load (with an 8-14 hour fast before the test); diagnostic levels are >180, >155, and >140 mg/dl after 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively

overweight: the Institute of Medicine defines overweight as a Body Mass Index (BMI) between 26 and 29.0; "very overweight" is a BMI greater than 29.0; "obese" is a BMI >30

parity: the number of times a woman has been pregnant for 20 or more weeks (the current pregnancy is not included.)

pernicious anemia: a chronic illness caused by impaired absorption of vitamin B-12 because of a lack of intrinsic factor in gastric secretions

palprebral fissure length: distance between the inner and outer corners of the eye

phenylketonuria (PKU): an inherited (autosomal recessive) metabolic disorder, marked by the deficiency of the enzyme that converts phenylalanine (an amino acid) to tyrosine; accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood can lead to mental retardation and other neurologic problems; treatment includes a low-phenylalanine diet and a phenylalanine-free medical food

placenta previa: a condition in which the placenta is implanted in the lower segment of the uterus, covering part of or all of the inner opening of the cervix; this can cause severe bleeding during labor and delivery; treatment often includes hospitalization prior to labor, and cesarean delivery is recommended for nearly all women with placenta previa

polydipsia: excessive thirst

polyuria: excessive urination

preeclampsia/eclampsia: preeclampsia is the development of hypertension with proteinuria and/or edema due to pregnancy; eclampsia can occur with preeclampsia and is the occurrence of seizures in a patient with preeclampsia

premature infant:an infant born before week 37 of pregnancy

prophylactic vitamin K: vitamin K that is given at birth to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (also known as vitamin K deficiency bleeding - VKDB); intramuscular administration of vitamin K is routine in the US

protein-induced enterocolitis: a protein intolerance that is marked by severe vomiting and diarrhea (that resolves when the offending protein is eliminated), colonic biopsies indicate characteristic abnormalities;cow's milk and soy protein are the most common; other proteins include grains, meat and poultry, vegetables, and elgumes

protein-induced proctocolitis: a condition seen in infants; symptoms include blood-tinged stools and mucus, fussiness, and incrased frequency of bowel movenents; typically thought to be an intolerance of cow's milk protein so management involves elimination of cow's milk protein and/or soy protein from the infant's (and breastfeeding mother's) food pattern

radioallergosorben test (RAST): a test that measures specific IgE antibodies in serum

radioactive isotopes: medications used to treat some cancers and to diagnose and treat some types of thyroid disorders

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): the average daily dietary intake level that is meets the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals

renal solute load: the amount of nitrogenous waste and minerals that must be excreted by the kidneys

Rh incompatibility: a condition which develops when a pregnant woman has an Rh-negative blood type and the fetus she carries has Rh-positive blood type; Rh incompatibility causes hemolysis, symptoms can range from very mild to fatal

rooting: a reflex present in newborns; when an infant's cheek is touched or stroked, he turns his head toward the touched side and begins to suck

secretory IgA: secretory IgA antibodies in breastmilk provide infants with intestinal protection against virusus and bacteria

short bowel syndrome: malabsorption of fluid and nutrients associated with significant resections of the small intestine; most cases in infants result from congenintal anomalies, atresia, volvulus or necrotizing enterocolitis

skin test: a test in which an antigen is applied directly to the skin and then pricked or scratched through with a needle to observe the histamine response

thromboembolsim: formation in a blood vessel of a clot that breaks loose and is carried by the blood stream to plug another vessel

trisomy 21 (Down syndrome): genetic disorder in which an individual has an extra 21st chromosome, typically characterized by low muscle tone, cardiac problems, GI malformations, and a distinct facial appearance

underweight: the Institute of Medicine defines underweight as a Body Mass Index of less than 19.8







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Last updated: 10/22/2018