The Conventional Battery The Zinc Alkaline Manganese Dioxide Battery System

Examples: AA, AAA, C, D, F and N batteries. (cylindrical and miniature button batteries)

Applications: Radio, calculator, remote control, regular camera, compact disk player, regular camcorders, cellular phones etc. 

Cathode/Anode/Electrolyte: Manganese Dioxide/Zinc/Aqueous Potassium Hydroxide.

 Chemistry:   (MnO2 + H2O + e- MnOOH + OH-) X 3   cathode
                        
3MnOOH + e-
Mn3O4 + OH- + H2O
                        Zn + 4OH-
Zn(OH)4 + 2e-                         anode - early reaction
                        Zn + 2OH-
Zn(OH)2 + 2e-                         anode - late reaction

                        (Zn(OH)2 ZnO + H2O) X 2      
                                                                                                    
    
                        3MnO2 + 2Zn
Mn3O4 + 2ZnO                (discharge reaction)

Distinguishing Characteristics:

Fun Fact: In recent years the Zinc/Alkaline/Manganese Dioxide Battery System has replaced the Leclanche Battery System as the primary battery of choice for consumer electronics, due to its superior performance at higher current drains and low temperatures, as well as a favorable shelf life. 

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