For a complete list of publications visit Dr. Varani’s Google Scholar page.

2022202120202019201820172016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995 1994

University of Washington


211. A functional SNP regulates E-cadherin expression by dynamically remodeling the 3D structure of a promoter-associated non-coding RNA transcript. Sharma, S., Pisignano, G., Merulla, J., Catapano, C. V., & Varani, G. (2022). Nucleic acids research50(19), 11331–11343.

210. Structure of the dengue virus RNA promoter. Sun, Y. T., & Varani, G. (2022).  RNA (New York, N.Y.)28(9), 1210–1223.

209. A Slow Dynamic RNA Switch Regulates Processing of microRNA-21. Shortridge, M. D., Olsen, G. L., Yang, W., Walker, M. J., & Varani, G. (2022).  Journal of molecular biology434(16), 167694.


208. Genome-wide association studies reveal the role of polymorphisms affecting factor H binding protein expression in host invasion by Neisseria meningitidis. Earle, S. G., Lobanovska, M., Lavender, H., Tang, C., Exley, R. M., Ramos-Sevillano, E., Browning, D. F., Kostiou, V., Harrison, O. B., Bratcher, H. B., Varani, G., Tang, C. M., Wilson, D. J., & Maiden, M. C. J. (2021).  PLoS pathogens17(10), e1009992.

207. Efficient NMR Screening Approach to Discover Small Molecule Fragments Binding Structured RNA. Shortridge, M. D., & Varani, G. (2021).  ACS medicinal chemistry letters12(8), 1253–1260.


206. The Long Noncoding RNA CCAT2 Induces Chromosomal Instability Through BOP1-AURKB Signaling. Chen, B., Dragomir, M. P., Fabris, L., Bayraktar, R., Knutsen, E., Liu, X., Tang, C., Li, Y., Shimura, T., Ivkovic, T. C., De Los Santos, M. C., Anfossi, S., Shimizu, M., Shah, M. Y., Ling, H., Shen, P., Multani, A. S., Pardini, B., Burks, J. K., Katayama, H., … Calin, G. A. (2020).  Gastroenterology159(6), 2146–2162.e33.

205. NMR structure of Dengue West Nile viruses stem-loop B: A key cis-acting element for flavivirus replication. Sharma, S., & Varani, G. (2020). Biochemical and biophysical research communications531(4), 522–527.

204. An evolutionarily conserved RNA structure in the functional core of the lincRNA Cyrano.  Jones, A. N., Pisignano, G., Pavelitz, T., White, J., Kinisu, M., Forino, N., Albin, D., & Varani, G. (2020). RNA (New York, N.Y.)26(9), 1234–1246.

203. Primordial emergence of a nucleic acid-binding protein via phase separation and statistical ornithine-to-arginine conversion.  Longo, L. M., Despotović, D., Weil-Ktorza, O., Walker, M. J., Jabłońska, J., Fridmann-Sirkis, Y., Varani, G., Metanis, N., & Tawfik, D. S. (2020). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America117(27), 15731–15739.

202. Structure of the RNA Specialized Translation Initiation Element that Recruits eIF3 to the 5′-UTR of c-Jun. Walker, M. J., Shortridge, M. D., Albin, D. D., Cominsky, L. Y., & Varani, G. (2020).  Journal of molecular biology432(7), 1841–1855.

201. Comparative structure, dynamics and evolution of acyl-carrier proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella melitensis and Rickettsia prowazekii. Barnwal, R. P., Kaur, M., Heckert, A., Gartia, J., & Varani, G. (2020).  The Biochemical journal477(2), 491–508.


200. Multimodal Long Noncoding RNA Interaction Networks: Control Panels for Cell Fate Specification. Smith, K. N., Miller, S. C., Varani, G., Calabrese, J. M., & Magnuson, T. (2019).  Genetics213(4), 1093–1110.

199. Decrypting noncoding RNA interactions, structures, and functional networks. Fabbri, M., Girnita, L., Varani, G., & Calin, G. A. (2019). Genome research29(9), 1377–1388.

198. α-Sheet secondary structure in amyloid β-peptide drives aggregation and toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. Shea, D., Hsu, C. C., Bi, T. M., Paranjapye, N., Childers, M. C., Cochran, J., Tomberlin, C. P., Wang, L., Paris, D., Zonderman, J., Varani, G., Link, C. D., Mullan, M., & Daggett, V. (2019). . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America116(18), 8895–8900.

197. A Small Cyclic β-Hairpin Peptide Mimics the Rbfox2 RNA Recognition Motif and Binds to the Precursor miRNA 20b. Sun, Y. T., Shortridge, M. D., & Varani, G. (2019).  Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology20(7), 931–939.

196. An ultra-high affinity ligand of HIV-1 TAR reveals the RNA structure recognized by P-TEFb. Shortridge, M. D., Wille, P. T., Jones, A. N., Davidson, A., Bogdanovic, J., Arts, E., Karn, J., Robinson, J. A., & Varani, G. (2019).  Nucleic acids research47(3), 1523–1531.

195. An Allosteric Switch Primes Sequence-Specific DNA Recognition. Walker, M. J., & Varani, G. (2019).  Cell176(1-2), 4–6.

194. Design of RNA-targeting macrocyclic peptides. Walker, M. J., & Varani, G. (2019).  Methods in enzymology623, 339–372.


193. Reconstitution of the CstF complex unveils a regulatory role for CstF-50 in recognition of 3′-end processing signals. Yang, W., Hsu, P. L., Yang, F., Song, J. E., & Varani, G. (2018).  Nucleic acids research46(2), 493–503.

192. Molecular basis for the increased affinity of an RNA recognition motif with re-engineered specificity: A molecular dynamics and enhanced sampling simulations study. Bochicchio, A., Krepl, M., Yang, F., Varani, G., Sponer, J., & Carloni, P. (2018). PLoS computational biology14(12), e1006642.

191. Simple yet functional phosphate-loop proteins. Romero Romero ML, Yang F, Lin YR, Toth-Petroczy, A., Berezovsky, I. N., Goncearenco, A., Yang, W., Wellner, A., Kumar-Deshmukh, F., Sharon, M., Baker, D., Varani, G., & Tawfik, D. S.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(51): E11943-E11950. doi:10.1073/pnas.1812400115


190. A Macrocyclic Peptide Ligand Binds the Oncogenic MicroRNA-21 Precursor and Suppresses Dicer Processing. Shortridge MD, Walker MJ, Pavelitz T, Chen Y, Yang W, Varani G. ACS Chem Biol. (2017)

189. Different phosphoisoforms of RNA polymerase II engage the Rtt103 termination factor in a structurally analogous manner. Nemec CM, Yang F, Gilmore JM, Hintermair C, Ho YH, Tseng SC, Heidemann M, Zhang Y, Florens L, Gasch AP, Eick D, Washburn MP, Varani G, Ansari AZ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2017)

188. Ultraslow Domain Motions in HIV-1 TAR RNA Revealed by Solid-State Deuterium NMR Huang W, Emani PS, Varani G, Drobny GP J Phys Chem B Jan 12;121(1):110-117 (2017)

187. The C terminus of Pcf11 forms a novel zinc-finger structure that plays an essential role in mRNA 3′-end processing.Yang F, Hsu P, Lee SD, Yang W, Hoskinson D, Xu W, Moore C, Varani G. RNA. (2017) Jan;23(1):98-107.


186. Development of Small Molecules with a Noncanonical Binding Mode to HIV-1 Trans Activation Response (TAR) RNA Abulwerdi FA, Shortridge MD, Sztuba-Solinska J, Wilson R, Le Grice SF, Varani G, Schneekloth JS Jr J Med Chem Dec 22;59(24):11148-11160 (2016)

185. Structure and mechanism of a molecular rheostat, an RNA thermometer that modulates immune evasion by Neisseria meningitidis Barnwal RP, Loh E, Godin KS, Yip J, Lavender H, Tang CM, Varani G Nucleic Acids Res Nov 2;44(19):9426-9437 (2016)

184. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designer RNA-binding proteins Y. Chen, F. Yang, L. Zubovic, T. Pavelitz, W. Yang, K. Godin, M. Walker, S. Zheng, P. Macchi and G. Varani Nat Chem Biol. Sep;12(9):717-23 (2016)

183. Structure of a low-population binding intermediate in protein-RNA recognition A. N. Borkar, M. F. Bardaro, C. Camilloni, F. A. Aprile, G. Varani and M. Vendruscolo Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2016)

182. Rbfox proteins regulate microRNA biogenesis by sequence specific binding to their precursors and target downstream Dicer Y. Chen, L. Zubovic, F. Yang, K. Godin, T. Pavelitz, J. Castellanos, P. Macchi, G. Varani Nucleic Acids Res. (2016)


181. A. Bottini, S. K. De, B. Wu, C. Tang, G. Varani and M. Pellecchia Targeting the influenza virus RNA A promoter 86 663-673 Chem. Bio. Drug Design (2015)

180. M. Shortridge and G. Varani Structure-based approaches to targeting RNA with small molecules Curr. Op. Struct. Biol. 30 79-98 (2015)

179. G. Varani 20 years of RNA: the discovery of microRNAs RNA 21 751-752 (2015)


178. Musiani, G. Rossetti, L. Capece, T. M. Gerger, C. Micheletti, G. Varani, P. Carloni MD simulations identify time scale of conformational changes responsible for conformational selection in molecular recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 15631-15637 (2014)

177. P. L Hsu, F. Yang, W. Smith-Kinnaman, W. Yang, N. Zheng, A. Mosley and G. Varani Rtr1 is a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates Tyr1 and Ser5 on the RNA Polymerase II CTD J. Mol. Biol. 426 2970-2981 (2014)

176. G.Hopping, J. Kellock, P. Law, R. Barnwal, M. McCully, G. Varani, B. Caughey and V. Daggett Designed α-Sheet peptides inhibit amyloid formation by targeting toxic oligomers eLife e01681 (2014)

175. Sperber H., Beem A., Shannon S., Jones R., Banik P., Chen Y., Ku S., Varani G., Yao S., Ruohola-Baker H. miRNA sensitivity to Drosha levels correlates with pre-miRNA secondary structure RNA 20 621-631 (2014)

174. Lee M. K., Bottini A., Kim M., Bardaro M. F. Jr, Zhang Z., Pellecchia M., Choi B. S., Varani A novel small-molecule binds to the influenza A virus RNA promoter and inhibits viral replication. Chem Commun (Camb) 50 368-370 (2014)

173. Smith-Kinnaman W. R., Berna M. J., Hunter G. O., True J. D., Hsu P., Cabello G. I., Fox M. J., Varani G., Mosley A. L. The interactome of the atyoical phosphatase Rtr1 in S. cerevisiae Mol Biosyst. 10 1730-1741 (2014)

172. P. S. Emani, M. F. Bardaro M. F. Jr, Huang W., Aragon S., Varani G., Drobny G. P. Elucidating molecular motion through structural and dynamic filters of energy-minimized conformer ensembles J Phys Chem B. 118 1726-1742 (2014)


171. K. S. Godin and G. Varani SnoRNP biogenesis and function, in Post-transcriptional gene regulation, J. Wu editor, Wiley-Blackwell
170. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology, C. Yu and G. Varani FEBS Journal 280 2734-2754 (2013)

169. RNA-peptide binding driven by electrostatics: Insight from bidirectional pulling simulations T. N. Do, P. Carloni, G. Varani and G. Bussi J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9 1720-1730 (2013)


168. Structural and biochemical analysis of the assembly and function of the yeast pre-mRNA 3′ end processing complex CF I R. P. Barnwal, S. D Lee, C. Moore and G. Varani Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109 21342-21347 (2012)

167. GFT projection NMR for efficient 1H/13C sugar spin system identification in nucleic acids Attreya H, Sathyamoorthy, B., G. Jaipuria, V. Beaumont, G. Varani and T. Szyperski J. B. NMR 54 337-342 (2012)

166. H. Kim, M.-K. Lee. J. Ko, C.-J. Park, M. Kim, Y. Jeong, S. Hong, G. Varani and B.-S. Choi, Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Bind to the Influenza A Virus RNA Promoter Mol Biosyst. 8 2857-2859 (2012)

165. W. Huang, M. F. Bardaro Jr, G. Varani and G. D. Drobny Preparation of RNA samples with narrow line widths for solid state NMR investigations J. Mag. Res. 223 51-54 (2012)

164. M. F. Bardaro and G. Varani Achieving Independent Alignments for Measurement of Residual Dipolar Couplings Using a Chimeric RNA J. B. NMR 54 69-80 (2012)

163. Counterion redistribution upon binding of a Tat-protein mimic to HIV-1 TAR RNA T. N. Do,,E. Ippoliti, P. Carloni, G. Varani,and M. Parrinello J. Chem, Theory Comput. 8 688-694 (2012)

162. M. F. Bardaro and G. Varani Examining the Relationship between RNA Function and Motion using NMR RNA Wires 3 122-132 (2012)


161. H. Walbott, R. Machado-Pinilla, D. Liger, M. Blaud, S. Réty, P. N. Grozdanov, K. Godin, H. van Tilbeurgh, G. Varani, U. T. Meier, N. Leulliot The H/ACA assembly factor Shq1 functions as an RNA mimic Genes Develop 25 2398-2408 (2011)

160. Y. Chen and G. Varani Finding the missing code of RNA recognition by PUF proteins Chem. & Biol. 18 821-823 (2011)

159. W. Huang, G. Varani and G. D. Drobny Interactions of protein Protein Side Chains with RNA Defined with 13C/15N{31P/19F} REDOR NMR J. B. NMR 51 347-356 (2011)

158. P. S. Emani, G. Olsen, G. Varani and G. P. Drobny Theory of non rigid rotational motion applied to NMR relaxation in RNA J. Phys. Chem. A 115 12055-12069 (2011)

157. Y. Niu, A. J. Jones, H. Wu, G. Varani and J. Cai γ-AApeptides bind to RNA by mimicking RNA-binding proteins Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 9 6604-6609 (2011)

156. R. Stacy, D. W. Begley, I. Phan, B. L. Staker, W. C. Van Voorhis, G. Varani, G. W. Buchko, L. J. Stewart and P. J. Myler Structural genomics of infectious disease drug targets: the SSGCID Acta Crystall. F 67 979-984 (2011)

155. R. P Barnwal and G. Varani Double stranded RNA and end-recognition domains in Encyclopedia of Biophysics (2011)

154. T. Leeper, S. Zhang, W. C. Van Voorhis, P. J. Myler and G. Varani Comparative analysis of glutaredoxin domains from bacterial opportunistic pathogens Acta Crystall. F 67 1141-1147 (2011)

153. R. P. Barnwal, W. C. van Vooris and G. Varani NMR Structure of an acyl carrier protein from Borrelia burgdorferi Acta Crystall. F 67 1137-1140 (2011)
152. I. H. Norville, K. O’Shea, M. Sarkar-Tyson, S. Zheng, R. W. Titball, G. Varani and N. J. Harmer The structure of a Burkholderia pseudomallei immunophilin-inhibitor complex reveals new approaches to antimicrobial development Biochem J. 437 413-422 (2011)

151. M. S. Lalonde, M. A. Lobritz, A. Ratcliff, Z. Athanassiou, Mudit Tyagi, J. A. Robinson, J. Karn, G. Varani and E. J. Arts Dual inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcription and mRNA transcription by a conformationally constrained peptidomimetic that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR) in HIV-1 genomic RNA PLOS Pathogens 7 e1002038 (2011)

150. M. Bardaro, K. Pederson, G. P. Drobny and G. Varani Investigating RNA and DNA Dynamics through NMR in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy, IOS Press, A. J. Dingley and S. M. Pascal Editors (2011)

149. A. Davidson, D. W Begley, C. Lau and G. Varani A small molecule probe induces a conformation in HIV TAR RNA capable of binding drug-like fragments J. Mol Biol. 410 984-996 (2011)

148. A. Davidson, K. Patora-Komisarska, J. A. Robinson, G. Varani Essential structural requirements for specific recognition of HIV TAR RNA by peptide mimetics of Tat protein Nucleic Acids Res. 39 248-256 (2011)


147. W. Huang, G.Varani and G. D. Drobny 13C-19F Intermolecular REDOR NMR Study of the Interaction of TAR RNA with Tat Peptides J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 17643-5 (2010)

146. P. Emani, G. L. Olsen, D. C. Echodu, G. Varani and G. D. Drobny A slow exchange theory of conformational capture in RNA J. Phys. Chem. B 114 15991-6002 (2010)

145. T. C. Leeper, X. Qu, C. Lu, C. Moore and G. Varani Recognition of yeast mRNA 3’-end processing signals by Hrp1 and Rna15 proteins J. Mol. Biol. 401 334-349 (2010)

144. B. M. Lunde, S. L. Reichow, M. Kim, S. Buratowski, A. Meinhart and G. Varani, Recruitment of transcription termination factors by cooperative interactions with the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain Nature Struct Mol Biol 17 1195-1201 (2010)

143. D. W. Begley, S. Zheng, D. Clem amd G. Varani Fragment-based discovery of novel thymidylate synthase leads by NMR screening and group epitope mapping Chem Bio. And Drug Des. 76 218-233 (2010)

142. M.-K. Lee, M. Gal, L. Frydman and G. Varani Real-time multidimensional NMR folding the adenine-sensing riboswitch with second resolution PNAS 107 9192-9197 (2010)

141. Y. Chen and G. Varani RNA structure in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (2010)

140. K. Pederson, D. Echodu, P. Emani, G. Olsen, M. F. Bardaro, Jr., Z. Shajani, G. Meints, P. Miller, G. Varani, G. P. Drobny Unifying Solution and Solid State NMR Studies of Nucleic Acid Dynamics (2010) in Encyclopedia of NMR

139. G. L. Olsen, M. F. Bardaro, D. C. Echodu, G. P. Drobny and G. Varani Atomic motions of RNA in space and time J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 303-308 (2010)


138. Y. Liu, E. Peacey, J. Dickson, C. P. Donahue, S. Zheng, G. Varani and M. S. Wolfe Mitoxantrone Analogues as Ligands for a Stem-Loop Structure of Tau Pre-mRNA 52 6523-6526 J. Med. Chem. (2009)

137. D. W. Begley and G. Varani Locking our Viral Replication Nature Chem Biol. 5 782-783 (2009)

136. P. J. Myler, R. Stacy, L. Stewart, B. Staker, W. C. Van Voorhis, G. Varani, G. Buchko The Seattle structural genomics center for infectious diseases (SSGCID) Infect Disord Drug Targets 9 493-506 (2009)

135. G. L. Olsen, M. F. Bardaro, D. C. Echodu, G. P. Drobny and G. Varani Hydration-dependent dynamics in RNA J B NMR 45 133-142 (2009)

134. A. Davidson, T. C. Leeper, Z. Athanassiou, K. Patora-Komisarska, J. Karn, J. A. Robinson and G.Varani Simultaneous recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge and loop sequences by cyclic peptide mimics of Tat protein Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106 11931-11936 (2009)

133. K. S. Godin, H. Walbott, N. Leulliot, H. van Tilbeurgh and G. Varani the Box H/Aca snoRNP assembly factor Shq1 is a chaperone protein homologous to Hsp90 co-chaperones that interacts withn the Cbf5 enzyme J. Mol Biol. 390 231-244 (2009)

132. S. Zheng, Y. Chen, C. Donahue, M. S. Wolfe and G. Varani Structural basis for stabilization of the tau pre-mRNA splicing regulatory element by novatrone (mitoxantrone) Chem Biol 16 557-566 (2009)

131. M. Bardaro, Z. Shajani, K. Patora, J. A. Robinson and G. Varani Binding of small molecule ligands to HIV-1 TAR alters its Motional Landscape Nucleic Acids Res. 37 1529-1540 (2009)


130. Y. Chen, J. Mandic and G. Varani Cell-free selection of RNA-binding proteins using in vitro compartmentalization Nucleic Acids Res. 36 (2008)
129. D. Echodu, G. Goobes, Z. Shajani, K. Pederson, G. Meints, G. Varani and G. Furanose Dynamics in the HhaI Methyltransferase Target DNA Studied by Solution and Solid State NMR Relaxation J. Phys. Chem. 112 13934-13944 (2008)

128. C. M. Gherghe, Z. Shajani, K. A. Wilkinson, G. Varani and K. M. Weeks Strong correlation between SHAPE chemistry and the generalized NMR order parameter in RNA J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 12244-12245 (2008)

127. Shajani and G. Varani 13C Relaxation studies of HhaI methyltransferase target DNA reveal a unique motional signature Biochemistry 47, 7617-7625 (2008)

126. S. L. Reichow and G. Varani Nop10 is a Conserved H/ACA snoRNP Molecular adaptor Biochemistry 47 6148-6156 (2008)

125. J. Liu, D. W. Begley, D. D. Mitchell, C. L. M. J. Verlinde, W. G. J. Hol, G. Varani and E. Fan Multivalent drug design and inhibition of cholera toxin achieved by specific and transient protein-ligand interactions Chem. Biol. and Drug Design 71 408-419 (2008)

124. Olsen, D. Echodu, Z. Shajani, M. Bardaro, G. Varani and G.Drobny Solid-State Deuterium NMR Studies Reveal us-ns Motions in the HIV-1 TAR RNA Recognition Site J. Amer. Chem. 130 2896-2897 (2008)

123. T. Robertson and G. Varani Structure-based analysis of protein-nucleic-acid interactions (in press) in Structural Bioinformatics, 2nd edition, edited by J. Gu and P. Borne, Wiley (2009)


122. S. Zheng, T. A. Robertson and G. Varani A knowledge-based potential function predicts the specificity and binding energy of RNA-binding proteins FEBS J. 274 6378-6391 (2007)

121. P. Deka, M. E. Bucheli, C. Moore, S. Buratowski and G. Varani Structural Studies of the Interaction of the Yeast SR protein Npl3 with 3′-End Processing Sites J. Mol. Biol. 375 136-150 (2007)

120. K. S. Godin and G. Varani How Arginine-rich domains coordinated mRNA maturation events RNA Biology 4 69-75 (2007)

119. K. Moehle, Z. Athanassiou, R. L. A. Dias, A. Davidson, G. Varani and J. A. Robinson Novel β−hairpin peptidomimetics inhibit bind to HIV Rev Response Element by mimicking a α-helical structure Angew Chemie 46 9101-9104 (2007)

118. N. Leulliot, K. S. Godin, C. Hoareau-Aveilla, S. Quevillon-Cheruel, G. Varani, Y. Henry, H. Van Tilbeurgh The box H/ACA RNP assembly factor Naf1p contains a domain homologous to Gar1p mediating its interaction with Cbf5p J. Mol. Biol. 371 1338-1353 (2007)

117. Z. Shajani, G. Drobny and G. Varani Dynamic Changes in the RNA Binding Site for Human U1A Protein Observed by 13C NMR Relaxation Studies Biochemistry 46 5875-5883 (2007)

116. B. Lunde, C. Moore and G. Varani RNA binding proteins; a modular design for efficient function Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 479-490 (2007)

115. S. L. Reichow, T. Hamma, A. Ferre’ D’ Amare’ and G. Varani The Structure and function of Small Nucleolar Ribonucleoproteins Nucleic Acids Res. 35 1452-1464 (2007)

114. Z. Shajani and G. Varani NMR studies of dynamics in RNA and DNA by 13C relaxation Biopolymers 86 345-362 (2007)

113. A. Watters, P. Deka, C. Corrent, G. Varani, T. Sosnick and D. Baker The folding free energy landscape of Top7 is more complex than those of naturally occurring proteins Cell 128 613-624 (2007)

112. G. Dantas, C. Corrent, S. L. Reichow, J. J. Havranek, Z. M. Eletr, B. Kuhlman, G. Varani, E. Merritt, D. Baker High-resolution structural and thermodynamic analysis of extreme stabilization of human procarboxypeptidase by computational protein design J. Mol. Biol. 366 1209-1221 (2007)

111. X. Qu, J. M. Pérez-Cañadillas,S. Agrawal, J. DeBaecke, G. Varani and C. Moore The C-terminal domains of vertebrate CstF-64 and its yeast orthologue Rna15 form a new structure critical for mRNA 3′-end processing. J. Biol. Chem. 282 2101-2115 (2007)

110. Z. Athanassiou, R. L. A. Dias, K. Moehle, J. A. Robinson and G. Varani Novel β−hairpin peptidomimetics inhibitor of the BIV Tat protein binding to TAR with nM activity discovered from structure-based library design Biochemistry 46 741-751 (2007)


109. D. G. Mudeppa, C. K. T. Pang, T. Tsuboi, Y. Endo, F. S. Buckner, G. Varani and P. K. Rathod Cell-free production of functional Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase Molecular Biochemical Parasitology 151 216-219 (2006)

108. P. A. Miller, Z. Shajani, G. A. Meints, D. Caplow, G. Goobes, G. Varani and G. P. Drobny Contrasting Views of the Internal Dynamics of the HhaI Methyltransferase Target DNA Reported by Solution and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 15970-15971 (2006)

107. G. Dantas, A. L. Watters, B. Lunde, Z. Eletr, N. Isern, B. Kuhlman, B. L. Stoddard, G. Varani and D. Baker Mis-translation of a Computationally Designed Protein Yields an Exceptionally Stable Homodimer: Implications for Protein Engineering and Evolution J. Mol. Biology 362 1004-1024 (2006)

106. T. Robertson and G. Varani A simple, distance-dependent scoring function for prediction of protein-DNA interactions from structure Proteins 66 359-374 (2007)

105. S. Reichow and G. Varani RNA switches function Nature 441 1054-1055 (2006)

* 104. Y. Chen, J. Fender, J. D. Legassie, M. B. Jarstfer T. M. Bryan and G. Varani The structure of stem-loop IV of Tetrahymena telomerase RNA identifies a conformational switch important for enzymatic activity EMBO J. 25 3156-3166 (2006)

103. Z. Shajani, P. Deka and G. Varani Decoding RNA motional codes TIBS 31 421-424 (2006)

102. N. Dobson, G. Dantas, D. A. Baker and G. Varani Complete computational redesign of human U1A protein: thermodynamic stabilization with high-resolution validation of protein structure and dynamics Structure 14 847-856 (2006)

101. H. D. Cho, Y. Chen, G. Varani and A. M. Weiner A model for C74 addition by CCA-adding enzymes: C74 addition, like C75 and A76 addition, does not involve tRNA translocation J. Biol. Chem.281 9801-9811 (2006)


* 100. T. Hamma, S. L. Reichow, G. Varani and A. R. Ferré-D’Amaré The Dyskerin-Nop10 complex: a conserved molecular bracket at the core of the box H/ACA snoRNP Nature Struct Mol. Biol. 12 1101-1107 (2005)

99. T.C. Leeper, Z. Athanassiou, R.L.A. Dias, J.A. Robinson, and G. Varani TAR RNA recognition by a cyclic peptidomimetic of Tat protein Biochemistry 44 12362-12372 (2005)

98. S. Y. Hunt, C. Detering, G. Varani, D. P. Jacobus, G. Schieser, C. Hopkins Sibley, Analysis in yeast of novel inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase of P. falciparum and P. vivax. Mol. Biochem. Parasitology 144 198-205 (2005)

97. N. Dobson, G. Dantas and G. Varani, 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of URNdesign, a computationally redesigned RRM protein, J. Biomol. NMR 33 135 (2005)

96. G. L. Olsen, T. E. Edwars, P. Deka, G. Varani, S. Th. Sigurdsson and G. Drobny, Monitoring Tat peptide Binding to TAR RNA by Solid State 31P 19F REDOR NMR, Nucleic Acids Res. 33 3447-3454 (2005)

95. Z. Shajani and G. Varani, 13C NMR Relaxation Studies of RNA Base and Ribose Nuclei Reveal a Complex Pattern of Motions in the RNA Binding Site for Human U1A Protein J. Mol. Biol. 349 699-715 (2005)

94. Y. Chen and G. Varani, Protein Families and RNA Recognition FEBS J. 272 2088-2097 (2005)

93. P. Deka, J. M. Perez-Canadillas, R. K. Paranji and G. Varani, Protein and RNA Dynamics Play a Key Role in Determining the Specific Recognition of GU-rich polyadenylation regulatory elements by human Cstf-64 protein, J. Mol. Biol. 347 719-733 (2005)

92. C.K.T. Pang, S. K. De, S.K., J. White, J., F. Buckner, G. Varani and P. Rathod, Differential drug binding by the highly conserved Plasmodium falciparum thymidylate synthase Mol. Biochem. Parasitology 143 121-124 (2005)

91. T. C. Leeper and G. Varani, Structure of the enzyme-activating fragment of human telomerase RNA RNA 11 394-403 (2005)


90. Y. Chen, T. Kortemme, T. Robertson, D. Baker and G. Varani, A new hydrogen-bonding potential for the design of protein-RNA interactions predicts specific contacts and discriminated decoys. Nucleic Acids Res. 32 5147-5162 (2004)

89. C. Detering and G. Varani Validation of automated docking programs for docking and database screening against RNA drug targets J. Med. Chem. 47 4188-4201 (2004)

88. N. Leulliot, S. Quevillon-Cheruel, M. Graille, H. van Tilbeurgh, T. L. Leeper, T. E. Edwards, S. Sigurdsson, N. Rozenkrants R. J. Nagel, K. S. Godin, M. Ares, Jr., G.Varani A new α−helical extension promotes RNA-binding by the dsRBD of Rnt1p RNAse III EMBO J 23 2468-2477 (2004)

* 87. Z. Athanassiou, R. L. A. Dias, K. Moehle, N. Dobson, G. Varani and J. A. Robinson Structural Mimicry of Retroviral Tat Proteins by Constrained β-Hairpin Peptidomimetics: Ligands with High Affinity and Selectivity for Viral TAR RNA Regulatory Elements J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 6906-6913 (2004)

86. B. Davis, M. Afshar, G. Varani, A. I. H. Murchie, J. Karn, G. Lentzen, M. Drysdale, J. Bower, A. J. Potter, I. D. Starkey, T. Swarbrick, and F. Aboul-ela. Rational Design of Inhibitors of HIV-1 TAR RNA Through the Stabilization of Electrostatic Hot Spots J. Mol. Biol. 336 343-356 (2004)


85. B. Kuhlman, G. Dantas, G. C. Ireton, G. Varani, B. L. Stoddard & D. Baker. Design of a novel globular protein fold with atomic level accuracy Science 302 1364-1368 (2003)

84. G. Varani and A. Ramos Splicing Factor 1 in the Pocket Structure 11 481-482 (2003)

83. C.-J. Park, S.-H. Bae, G. Varani, M.-K. Lee and B.-S. Choi Differential Recognition of Viral Promoter Structures by RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase from Influenza Virus Nucleic Acid Res. 31 2824-2832 (2003) (with cover)

82. J-M. Perez-Canadillas and G. Varani Recognition of GU-rich polyadenylation regulatory elements by human Cstf-64 protein EMBO J. 22 2821-2830 (2003)

81. G. Varani, Yu Chen and Tom L Leeper NMR Studies of Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions, in Methods in Molecular Biology: Protein NMR Techniques, edited by K. Downing (2003)

80. T. L. Leeper, N. Leulliot and G. Varani The solution structure of an essential stem-loop of human telomerase RNA Nucleic Acids Res. 31 2614-2621 (2003)


79. J. Greatorex, J. Gallego, G. Varani and A. Lever Structure and stability of wild-type and mutant RNA internal loops from the SL-1 domain of the HIV-1 packaging signal J. Mol. Biol. 322 543-553 (2002)

78. T. Castrignanò, G. Chillemi, G. Varani and A. Desideri Molecular Dynamics simulation of the RNA complex of a double-stranded RNA-binding domain reveals dynamic features of the intermolecular interface and its hydration. Biophys. J. 83 3542-3552 (2002)

77. G. Varani and F.-H. T. Allain How a Rotavirus Hijack the Human Protein Synthesis machinery. Nat Struct Biol. 9 158-160 (2002)

76. J. A. Collier, J. Gallego, R. Klinck, P. T. Cole, S. J. Harris, G. P. Harrison, F. Aboul-Ela, G. Varani, S. Walker: A conserved RNA structure within the HCV IRES eIF3-binding site. Nat Struct Biol. 9 375-380 (2002)

MRC, Cambridge

75. J. Gallego and G, Varani: The Hepatitis C Internal Ribosome Entry Site, a new Target for Antiviral Research. Biochem. Soc. Trans 30, 140-146 (2002)


74. J. Gallego and G. Varani Targeting RNA with Small-Molecule Drugs: Therapeutic Opportunities and Chemical Challenges. Acc. Chem. Res. 34 836-843 (2001)
73. A. Ramos, P. Beyer and G. Varani: Determination of the Structure of the RNA Complex of a Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Domain from Drosophila Staufen Protein. Biopolymers 52, 181-196 (2001)
72. N. Leulliot and G. Varani Current Topics in RNA-Protein Recognition: Control of Specificity and Biological Function through Induced Fit and Conformation Capture. Biochemistry 40, 7947-7955 (2001)
71. G. Varani Delivering Messages from the 3’-End Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98, 4288-4289 (2001)
70. J. M. Perez-Canadillas and G. Varani Recent Advances in RNA-Protein Recognition Curr. Op. Struct. Biol. 11, 53-58 (2001)
69. M. Allen and G. Varani Nuclear Magnetic resonance Methods to Study Structure and Dynamics of RNA-Protein Complexes: Met. Enzym. 339 357-376 (2001)


68. G. Varani and W. H. McClain The GU Wobble Base Pair: a Fundamental Block of RNA Structure Crucial to RNA Function in Diverse Biological Systems EMBO Reports 1 18-23 (2000)
* 67. L. Varani, S. I. Gunderson, T. Mittermaier, L. Kay, D. Neuhaus, I. Mattaj and G. Varani The NMR Structure of the 40 kDa Human U1A Ternary Complex Reveals the Basis of Cooperativity in U1A Inhibition of Poly(A) Polymerase; Nature Struct. Biol. 7 329-335 (2000) (with Cover, News and Views)
66. A. Sachs and G. Varani, Eukaryotic translation initiation: there are (at least) two sides to every story, Nature Struct. Biol. 7 356-361 (2000)
65. A. Zeffman, S. Hassard, A. Lever and G. Varani Structure of a Conserved RNA Internal Loop from the HIV-1 Encapsidation Signal and Interaction with gag Protein, J. Mol. Biol. 297 877-893 (2000).
* 64. A. Ramos, S. Grunert, M. Proktor, M. Bycroft, D. St Johnston & G. Varani. Structural basis for RNA Recognition by Drosophila Staufen Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Domains EMBO J 19, 997-1009 (2000)
63. M. Yasuda, J. Takamatsu, I. D’Souza, R. A. Crowther, T. Kawamata, M. Hasegawa, H. Hasegawa, M. G. Spillantini, S. Tanimukai, P. Poorkaj, L. Varani, G. Varani, T. Iwatsubo, M. Goedert, G. D. Schellenberg and C. Tanaka. A Novel Mutation in the Intron following Exon 10 of the Tau Gene in Familial Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD-Kumamoto) Ann. Neurol. 47, 422-429 (2000) (with News and Views)
62. G. Varani. RNA Structure in Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, McMillan, London (2000)
61. L. Varani, M. G. Spillantini, M. Goedert and G. Varani Structural Basis for Recognition of the RNA Major Groove in Tau Exon 10 Splicing Regulatory Element by Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Nucleic Acids Res. 28, 710-719 (2000)
60. P. Bayer, L. Varani and G. Varani New Methods for NMR Studies of Protein-RNA Complexes In Methods in Enzymology, RNA-Ligand Interactions Ed. by J. Abelson and D. Celander (2000) 317, 198-220


* 59. A. Mittermaier, L. Varani, D. Muhandiram, L. E. Kay and G. Varani. Changes in sidechain and backbone dynamics identify determinants of specificity in RNA recognition by human U1A protein. J. Mol. Biol 294 967-979 (1999) (cover)
58. K-Y. Chang, G. Varani, S. Bhattacharya, H. Choi and W. H. McClain Correlation between RNA Deformability and tRNA Aminoacylation PNAS USA 96 11764-11769 (1999)
57. C. Richter, C. Griesinger, I. Felli, Paul T. Cole, G. Varani and H. Schwalbe Determination of Sugar Conformation in Large RNA Oligonucleotides from Analysis of Dipole, Dipole Cross-Correlated Relaxation by Solution NMR Spectroscopy. J. Biomol. NMR 15, 241-250 (1999)
56. L. Banci, I, Bertini, A. Rosato and G. Varani Mytochondrial Cytochrome C: a Comparative Analysis J. Biol. Inorg. Chemistry 4 824-837 (1999)
55. L. Varani, M. G. Spillantini, B. Ghetti, A. Klug, M. Goedert and G. Varani Structure of Tau Exon 10 Splicing Regulatory Element RNA and Disruption by Frontotemporal Dementian and Parkinsonism Linked to Chromosome Mutations. PNAS USA 96, 8229-8234 (1999)
54. G. Varani, P. Bayer, P. Cole, A. Ramos and L. Varani RNA Structure and RNA-Protein Recognition during Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression. NATO ASI Series, RNA Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 195-216, edited by J. Barciszewski & B. F. C. Clark (1999)
53. P. Bayer, L. Varani and G. Varani Refinement of the Structure of RNA-Protein Complexes by Residual Dipolar Coupling Analysis J. Biomol NMR 14, 149-155 (1999)
52. M. Afshar, C. Prescott & G. Varani Structure-Based and Combinatorial Search for New RNA-Binding Drugs Curr. Op. Biotech. 10, 59-63 (1999)
51. K.-Y. Chang, A. Zeffman and G. Varani RNA Structure In Encyclopedya of Molecular Biology (1999); edited by Tom Creighton


50. A. Ramos and G. Varani A New Method to Detect Long-Range Protein-RNA Contacts: NMR Detection of Electron-Proton Relaxation Induced by Nitroxide Spin-Labelled RNA J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 10992-10993 (1998)
49. J. Karn, N. J. Keen, M. J. Churcher, F. Aboul-Ela, G. Varani, F. Hamy, E. R. Felder, G. Heizmann and T. Klimkait The HIV Tat-TAR Interaction, a Novel Target for Drug Discovery. In Van der Goot (Ed.) Pharmacochemistry Library Elsevier (1998)
48. G. Varani and K. Nagai RNA Recognition by RNP Proteins during RNA Processing
and Maturation Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 27 407-445 (1998)
47. L. Varani, A. Ramos, P. T. Cole, D. Neuhaus and G. Varani RNA-Protein Interactions and Protein-Protein Interactions during Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression. J. Korean Magn. Reson. Soc. 2 152-157 (1998)
46. Howe, P. W. A., Allain, F. H.-T., Varani, G. and Neuhaus, D. Determination of the NMR Structure of the Complex between U1A Protein and its RNA Polyadenylation Inhibition Element J. Biomol. NMR 11 59-84 (1998)
45. F. Aboul-ela and G. Varani Recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA by Tat Protein and Tat-derived Peptides J. Mol. Structure (Theochem) 423 29-40 (1998)
44. S. R. Price, C. Oubridge, G. Varani, and K. Nagai Preparation of RNA-Protein
Complexes for X-Ray Crystallography and NMR in RNA-Protein Interactions: Practical Approach. Ed. by C. Smith, Oxford University Press (1998)


43. F. H.-T. Allain, P. W. A. Howe, D. Neuhaus and G. Varani Structural Basis for the RNA-Binding Specificity of Human U1A Protein EMBO Journal 16 5764-5774 (1997)
42. K-Y. Chang and G. Varani Nucleic Acids Structure and Recognition Nature Struct. Biol. 4 854-859 (1997)
* 41. F. Hamy, G. Heizmann, E. Felder, G. Varani, F. Aboul-Ela, J. Lazdins, M. Walker, J. Karn and T. Klimkait Identification of an Inhibitor of the Tat/TAR RNA Interaction that Effectively Suppresses HIV Replication PNAS USA 94, 3548-3553 (1997)
40. G. Varani. A Cap for All Occasions Structure 5 855-858 (1997)
39. A. Ramos, C. C. Gubser and G. Varani Recent NMR Structures of RNA and its Complexes with Drugs, Peptides and Proteins Curr. Op. Struct. Biol. 7 317-323 (1997)
38. G. Varani RNA-Protein Recognition during RNA Processing and Development in The Many Faces of RNA. Ed. by D. Eggleston, C. Prescott and N. Pearson Academic Press (1997)
37. A. Ramos and G. Varani Structure of the Acceptor Stem of E.coli tRNAAla: Role of the G3•U70 Base Pair in Synthetase Recognition. Nucleic Acids Res. 25 2083-2090 (1997) (cover)
36. G. Varani RNA-Protein Intermolecular Recognition Acc. Chemical Res. 30, 189-195 (1997)
35. F. H. T. A. Allain and G. Varani How Accurately and Precisely can RNA Structure be determined by NMR? J. Mol. Biol. 267, 338-351 (1997)


34. F. Aboul-ela, J. Karn and G. Varani The Structure of HIV-1 TAR RNA in the Absence of Ligands Reveals a Novel Conformation of the Trinucleotide Bulge. Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3974-3981 (1996)
* 33. F.-H. T. Allain, C. C. Gubser, P. W. A. Howe, K. Nagai, D. Neuhaus and G. Varani, RNP Interaction Specificity Determined by RNA Folding during Complex Formation. Nature 380 646-650 (1996)
32. G. Varani, F. Aboul-ela and F. H.-T. Allain NMR Investigations of RNA Structure Prog NMR Spectroscopy 29 51-127 (1996)
31. J. Avis, F. H. T. A. Allain, P. W. A. H. Howe, G. Varani, D. Neuhaus and K. Nagai, Solution Structure of the N-terminal RNP Domain of U1A Protein: The Role of C-terminal Residues in Structure Stability and RNA Binding. J. Mol. Biol. 257, 398-411 (1996)
30. C. C. G. Gubser and G. Varani, Structure of the Polyadenylation Regulatory Element of the Human U1A pre-mRNA 3′-Untranslated Region and Interactionn with the U1A Protein. Biochemistry 35, 2253- 2267 (1996)


29. F. Aboul-ela, J. Karn and G. Varani, The Structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 TAR RNA Reveals Principles of RNA Recognition by Tat Protein. J. Mol. Biol. 253, 313-332 (1995) (cover)
28. F. H.-T. Allain and G. Varani, Structure of the P1 Helix from Group I Self Splicing Introns. J. Mol. Biol. 250, 333-353 (1995) (cover)
27. G. Varani, F. Aboul-ela, F. H.-T. Allain and C. C. Gubser, Novel Three-Dimensional 1H-13C-31P Triple Resonance Experiments for Sequential Backbone Correlations in Nucleic Acids. J. Biomol. NMR 5, 315-320 (1995)
26. F. H.-T. Allain and G. Varani, Divalent Metal Ion Binding to a Conserved Wobble Pair Defining the Upstream Site of Cleavage of Group I Self-Splicing Introns. Nucleic Acids Res. 23 341-350 (1995)
25. G. Varani, Exceptionally Stable Nucleic Acid Hairpins. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Structure 24, 379-404 (1995)
24. F. Aboul-ela and G. Varani Novel Techniques in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Nucleic Acids Curr. Op. Biotech. 6, 89-95 (1995)


23. P. W. A. Howe, K. Nagai, D. Neuhaus and G. Varani, NMR Studies of U1 snRNA Recognition by the N-Terminal RNP Domain of the Human U1A Protein. EMBO J 13, 3873-3881 (1994)
22. G. Varani and A. Pardi, RNA Structure in RNA-Protein Interactions. Eds. I. Mattaj and K. Nagai (Oxford University Press) (1994)

University of California, Berkeley

21. I. Tinoco, Jr., Z. Cai, J. V. Hines, S. Landry, J. SantaLucia, Jr., L. X. Shen, and G. Varani. RNA Structure and Scalar Coupling Constants, Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms, J. Trewhella, T. A. Cross, C. J. Unkefer, Editors, Los Alamos, NM 247-261 (1995)
20. J. V. Hines, S. M. Landry, G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr., Carbon-Proton Scalar Couplings in RNA: 3D Heteronuclear and 2D Isotope-Edited NMR of 13C-Labeled Extra Stable Hairpin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 5823-5831 (1994)
19. J. V. Hines, G. Varani, S. M. Landry and I. Tinoco Jr The Stereospecific Assignment of H5′ and H5” in RNA Using the Sign of Two-Bond Carbon-Proton Scalar Coupling J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 11002-11003 (1993)
* 18. B. Wimberly, G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr. The Conformation of Loop E of Eukaryotic 5S Ribosomal RNA Biochemistry 32, 1078-1087 (1993)
17. G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr RNA Structure and NMR Spectroscopy Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 479-532 (1991)
16. G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr. Carbon Assignments and Heteronuclear Coupling Constants for an RNA Oligonucleotide from Natural Abundance 13C-1H Corelated Experiments J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 9349-9354 (1991)
15. B. Wimberly, G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr Structural Determinants of RNA Function Curr Op. Struct. Biol. 1, 405-409 (1991)
14. G. Varani, C. Cheong and I. Tinoco Jr Structure of an Unusually Stable RNA Hairpin Biochemistry 30, 3280-3289 (1991)
* 13. C. Cheong, G. Varani and I. Tinoco Jr., Solution Structure of an Unusually Stable RNA Hairpin, 5’GGAC(UUCG)GUCC Nature 346, 680-682 (1990)
12. G. Varani, B. Wimberly and I. Tinoco Jr., Conformation and Dynamics of an RNA Internal Loop Biochemistry 28, 7760-7772 (1989)
11. I. Tinoco Jr., C. C. Hardin, J. D. Puglisi, G. Varani, S. K. Wolk and J. R. Wyatt Nucleic Acids Structure from A to Z (1989)
10. F. Aboul-ela, G. Varani, G. T. Walker and I. J. Tinoco The TFIIIA Recognition Fragment d(GGATGGGAG)d(CTCCCATCC) is B-Form in Solution. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 3559-3572 (1988)

Universita’ di Milano

9. G. Baldini and G. Varani Solvation Effects on the Mechanism of Drug-DNA Binding Biochem. Pharmacol. 37, 1825-1826 (1988)
8. G. Baldini, G. Chirico, L. Della Torre and G. Varani Role of Solvation on Dye Fluorescence J. of Luminescence 40, 274-275 (1988)
7. G. Varani, G. Chirico and G. Baldini Solvation Thermodynamics of Ethidium Bromide in Mixed Solvents J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 84, 979-992 (1988)
6. G. Varani, L. Della Torre and G. Baldini Non Specific Interactions in Dye Binding to DNA. Influence of Alcohols and Amides Biophys. Chem. 28, 175-181 (1987)
5. G. Varani, G. Baldini and M. Manfredi Fluorescence of Ethidium in Alcohol-Water Mixtures J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. I 83, 1609-1617 (1987)
4. G. Baldini and G. Varani The Role of the Solvent in the Binding of Ethidium Bromide to DNA in Water-Alcohol Solutions. Biopolymers 25, 2187-2209 (1986)
3. G. Baldini, H. Fu-Hua, G. Varani, L. Cordone, S. Fornili and G. Onori DNA Melting Induced by Alcohols: Role of the Solvent Properties Nuovo Cimento D 6, 618-630 (1985)
2. G. Baldini, M. Fornoni and G. Varani Pseudoelectrostatic effects in dye binding to DNA Nuovo Cimento D 6, 593 (1985)
1. G. Baldini, M. Succi and G. Varani On the Binding of Ligands to Macromolecules: an Accurate Procedure Nuovo Cimento D 2, 1065-1074 (1983)