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[Skill Modules >> Liver & Ascites >> References ]

References: Liver & Ascites

To read more about physical diagnosis skills, check out the General References
  • Cummings S, Papadakis M, Melnick J, Gooding GAW, Tierney LM. The predictive value of physical examination for ascites. West J Med 1985; 142:633-636.
  • McGee, S. Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 2001.
  • Naylor, CD, Physical examination of the liver. JAMA. (1994), 271(23): 1859-1865.
  • Sapira JD. The Art and Science of Bedside Diagnosis. (Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore) 1990, p 380-382; p. 444-446.
  • Williams JW, Simel DL. Does this patient have ascites? How to divine fluid in the abdomen. JAMA 1992; 267:2645-2648.
Pathophysiology references
  • Akriviadis EA, Kapnias D, Hadjigavriel M, Mitsiou A, Goulis J. Serum-ascites albumin gradient: its value as a rational approach to the differential diagnosis of ascites. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31:814-7.
  • Adams PC. Historical hepatology: Ludwig van Beethoven. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1987; 2:375-379.
  • Cappell MS, Shetty V. A multicenter, case-controlled study of the clinical presentation and etiology of ascites and the safety and clinical efficacy of diagnostic abdominal paracentesis in HIV seropositive patients. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89:2172-7.
  • Gines P, Arroyo V, Rod'es J. Ascites and hepatorenal syndrome: pathogenesis and treatment strategies. Adv Intern Med 1998; 43:99-142.
  • Gines P, Fern'andez-Esparrach G, Arroyo V, Rod'es J. Pathogenesis of ascites in cirrhosis. Semin Liver Dis 1997; 17:175-89.
  • Henriksen JH. Cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome: recent advances in pathogenesis. J Hepatol 1995; 23 Suppl 1:25-30.
  • Henriksen J, Ring-Larsen H. Ascites formation in liver cirrhosis. Dig Dis 1990; 8:152-
  • Henriksen JH, Ring-Larsen H. Ascites formation in liver cirrhosis: the how and the why. Dig Dis 1990; 8:152-62.
  • McHutchinson JG. Differential diagnosis of ascites. Semin Liver Dis 1997; 17:191-202.
  • Rocco V, Ware A. Cirrhotic ascites. Ann Int Med 1986; 105:573-
  • Rocco VK, Ware AJ. Cirrhotic ascites: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Ann Int Med 1986; 105:573-85.
  • Runyon B. Cardiac ascites. J Clin Gastro 1988; 10:410-
  • Runyon B. Cardiac ascites: a characterization. J Clin Gastro 1988; 10:410-2.
  • Runyon BA. Historical aspects of patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Semin Liver Dis 1997; 17;163-73.
  • Runyon BA, Montano AA, Akriviadis E, et al. The serum-ascites albumin gradient in the differential diagnosis of ascites is superior to the exudate/transudate concept. Ann Intern Med 117:215-20.
  • Smith FJ, Mathieson JR, Cooperberg PL. Abdominal abnormalities in AIDS: detection at ultrasound in a large population. Radiology 1994; 192:691-5.

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