Advanced Physical Diagnosis
  • Techniques
• Jugular Venous Pressure
• Jugular Waveforms
  • Demonstrations
Associated Evaluations
  • Patient HX
  • Physical Exam
  • Laboratory & Imaging
Differential Dx
Evidence Base
• Measurement of Jugular Venous Pressure
• Hepatojugular Reflux (HJR)
• Cardiac Hemodynamics
Teaching Tips
[Skill Modules >> Neck & Veins Examination >> Techniques ]

Technique: Neck Veins

Technique A: Jugular Venous Pressure Measurement (JVP)

  • The jugular vein is localized and distinguished from the carotid artery.
  • The level of pressure in the jugular vein is determined by detecting column height and relation to central pressure in the left atrium.
Once the technique for JVP is well-understood, it is useful to learn jugular waveform analysis, a far more complex and difficult examination maneuver. Considerable attention in this module is devoted to waveforms and abnormalities in waveforms with various conditions. Medical students are not expected to master this technique, but begin learning a skill to be developed during residency, and as a clinician.

Technique B: Jugular Venous Wave Form Analysis

  • After localization of the jugular vein, the "a" and "v" waveforms are observed.
  • Patterns in the a and v waves help to identify various rhythm abnormalities and cardiovascular conditions.

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