Advanced Physical Diagnosis
  • Techniques
• Jugular Venous Pressure
• Jugular Waveforms
  • Demonstrations
Associated Evaluations
  • Patient HX
  • Physical Exam
  • Laboratory & Imaging
Differential Dx
Evidence Base
• Measurement of Jugular Venous Pressure
• Hepatojugular Reflux (HJR)
• Cardiac Hemodynamics
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[Skill Modules >> Neck & Veins Examination >> References ]

References: Neck Veins

To read more about physical diagnosis skills, check out the General References
  1. Badgett, R.G., et al. Can the clinical examination diagnose left-sided heart failure in adults? JAMA 1997; 277:1712-1719
  2. Butman, SM, GA Ewy, JR Stabler, KB Kern, and E Hahn. Bedside cardiovascular examination in patients with severe chronic heart failure: importance of rest or inducible jugular venous distention. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 22:968-974.
  3. Cook, et al. Does this patient have abnormal central venous pressure? JAMA, Feb. 28, 1996.
  4. Lewis, T. Remarks on early signs of cardiac failure of the congestive type. Brit Med J 1930; May10:849-852
  5. Sapira, J.D. The art and science of bedside diagnosis. 1990. (Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore.)
Online References
  1. Cable, C., and the UCLA School of Medicine. The Auscultation Assistant. (1997). (Permission to link to this website was granted by the author, Christopher Cable, MD.)
  2. Hayword, R., et al. (ed), and the Evidence Based Medicine Informatics Project at McMaster University. Evidence-based Medicine: A New Approach to Teaching the Practice of Medicine. (1997).
  3. Oxman, A.D., et al, and the Evidence Based Medicine Working Group at McMaster University. User's Guide for the Medical Literature. (1997).

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