About Us

The Fire Landscapes Adaptive Management & Ecology (FLAME) lab is a research partner of the Precision Forestry Cooperative (PFC) in the College of the Environment, School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS) at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington. FLAME was established in 2021 by Dr. Susan Prichard in close partnership with the Dr. L. Monika Moskal’s Remote Sensing and Geospatial Analysis Laboratory, Dr. Van Kane’s Forest Resilience Lab and the USFS Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) Team.

FLAME is focused on landscape fire ecology and management research with a strong emphasis on climate change and fire-prone forests. Ongoing research topics include: wildland fuel characterization, fuel treatment effectiveness, fire and smoke modeling, fire-vegetation dynamics modeling, and carbon tradeoffs analyses.

As part of the University of Washington, we respectfully acknowledge the Coast Salish peoples of this land, the land which touches the shared waters of all tribes and bands within the Duwamish, Puyallup, Suquamish, Tulalip and Muckleshoot nations.


Our Team

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Susan Prichard

I am a research scientist at the UW School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS) with over 25 years experience in forest and fire ecology. My research is centered around landscape fire ecology with an emphasis on wildland fire and fuels management. I am particularly interested in research to support forest adaptation to climate change, wildfires and other disturbances. Our team's current projects include research on fuel treatment effectiveness, landscape dynamics of fire and vegetation, carbon and smoke tradeoffs, and wildland fuel consumption and smoke emissions.

Outside of work, I enjoy running, mountain biking, hiking, Nordic skiing and spending time in forests and mountains.

Curriculum Vitae
Diversity, Equity and Inclusivity

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Deborah Nemens

I am a research scientist in the FLAME lab, with a strong background in field and fire ecology, botany, and fire-adapted landscape restoration. I have participated in all aspects of the 3D Fuels project, from field data collection to data processing and analysis. Other projects that I am involved in include studies of fuels treatment effectiveness, understory vegetation dynamics following long term application of prescribed fire, and impacts of renewed fire treatments on mature oak woodlands following years of fire exclusion.

When not working with the lab, I enjoy hiking, skiing, climbing, kayaking and mushroom hunting in the wilds of the PNW.

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Jessie Thoreson

I am a research scientist within the FLAME lab at the UW School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS). My MS graduate work at Oregon State University focused on the social-ecological systems of fire ecology in northwestern California. I currently support research projects within the FLAME lab including modeling landscape fire and vegetation dynamics in California and BC and 3-dimensional fuels modeling.

Outside of the FLAME lab, I am a musician, science illustrator, backpacker, and ultimate frisbee player.

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Brian Drye

As a Software Engineer with the UW School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, I mainly work on adding features to various tools like FCCS, Consume, and Bluesky Playground. I also write scripts in Python and R for data analysis. Recently, I’ve been working on photogrammetry related to 3D fuels.

Prior to working with FERA and the FLAME team, I worked for software companies in the Seattle area and later as an independent software engineer. I attended UC Berkeley and University of Washington.

Outside of work, I enjoy playing ice hockey and tennis.

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Paige Eagle

I've been with the UW School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS) since 1999 as data manager and app/website developer working with the USFS PNW Research Station's FERA Team. I manage most aspects of collected data, from data entry to data "crunching" to creating the websites that allow users to interface with those data. I sometimes even get to help collect data in the field, which is a great reprieve from the screen and keyboard.

In my off hours I enjoy birding (including tending to my backyard chickens), gardening, hiking, yoga, and running.

Curriculum Vitae



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3D Fuels

Funded by the US Department of Defense Strategic and Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), the 3D Fuels project is developing methods for sampling wildland fuels in 3D, mapping 3D fuel properties, and generating gridded inputs for next-generation fire and smoke modeling. In partnership with FERA, our research team is collaborating with other teams and organizations in the southeastern and western US to establish demonstration sites and collect integrated datasets of 3D fuels clip plots, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), structure-from-motion photogrammetry, and airborne laser scanning (ALS).

To learn more, visit the 3D Fuels website.

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Adapting Western Forests to Climate Change

In an Invited Feature, Susan Prichard, Paul Hessburg and Keala Hagmann recently led a large synthesis of the existing science on the need for adaptive forest management across fire-prone forest ecosystems of the western United States. The synthesis was created to address ongoing uncertainty about the extent of fire exclusion, forest departures, and science-based adaptation strategies. The project received broad support, including funding from the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CALFIRE), Ecological Restoration Institute, Washington State Department of Natural Resources, US Forest Service Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest Research Stations, The Nature Conservancy, The Wilderness Society, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

The Invited Feature, published by Ecological Applications, consists of three parts:

Read more:

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Fire Science Synthesis

In a related project to 3D fuels, our team is working with Alina Cansler and Eric Rowell to synthesis wildland fuel datasets and mapping approaches that inform fire behavior and effects modeling. As part of this study that was funded by the Joint Fire Science Program, an online repository is being developed to summarize existing datasets on intrinsic fuel properties that can be used in wildland fuel mapping and fire behavior modeling.

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North Central Wildfires

The North Central Wildfires project was funded by the Joint Fire Science Program to evaluate fuel treatment and firefighting effectiveness in the record-setting 2014 and 2015 wildfire seasons of North Central Washington. Results from the 2014 Carlton Complex fires were published in 2020. Subsequent publications are in preparation on fireline effectiveness and fuel treatment effectiveness across all study area wildfires.

For more information, visit the NCW project website.

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The Reburn project evaluates fire-fire interactions and vegetation dynamics in mixed severity fire regimes. The original project, funded by the Joint Fire Science Program, evaluated the interactions of past burn mosaics within recent large fire events in three study areas to support wildfire management decisions in semi-arid forests. A key inspiration for this project was a map of known fire starts within the 2006 Tripod Complex fire in North Central Washington State. Within the 175,000 acre fire area, over 300 active fire starts were suppressed between 1940 and 2005. Using historical weather and fire start datasets, we evaluated past fire mosaics and their interaction with subsequent large fire events. The study was designed to support the National Wildland Fire Cohesive Strategy and specifically address its goals to increase landscapes resiliency to fire and to improve firefighter safety.

Our Reburn modeling team, including Paul Hessburg and Brion Salter (PNW Research Station), Nicholas Povak (PSW Research Station) and Bob Gray (RW Gray Consulting) are actively collaborating with Werner Kurz and the Pacific Institute of Climate Solutions on Reburn modeling applications in BC for a wildland fire management and carbon tradeoffs analysis. We are also working with Skye Greenler, Christopher Dunn, and John Bailey (Oregon State University) and Frank Lake (Pacific Southwest Research Station) on Reburn model development in the western Klamath Region that integrates cultural burning practices.

For more information, visit the Reburn project website.

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NSF Convergence Project on Simultaneous Wildfires

Prichard is actively collaborating on an interdisciplinary study with the Alison Cullen (UW Evans School of Policy), National Center for Atmospheric Research, John Abatzoglou (UC Merced) and UW graduate students to find areas of convergence between wildland fire management, policy and use of downscaled climate projections to inform future preparedness to increasing simultaneous wildfires under climate change.

View factsheet.

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Wildland Fire Smoke Assessments

Our team is actively collaborating on several wildland fire smoke assessments, including:

  • Wildland Fire Smoke in the United States: a scientific assessment (Chapter 2 - Fuel and Consumption). In press.
  • Fire, Smoke and Health: tracking the modeling chain from flames to health and wellbeing (Chapter 4: Wildland fuel mapping in space and time). In prep.

Decision Support AirFire logo PWFSL logo

In close collaboration with the Fire and Environmental Research Applications team (USFS PNW Research Station), our team develops and maintains a number of decision support tools for wildland fuel characterization, consumption and smoke modeling. The tools are regularly used for prescribed burn and smoke management planning, aboveground carbon mapping, and wildland fire emissions accounting and tradeoffs analyses.

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Consume (current version 5.0) predicts total fuel consumption, pollutant emissions, and heat release based on input fuel loadings, fuel moisture, and other environmental factors. It is also available as a command line version and as a module within BlueSky and the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS).

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Digital Photo Series (DPS)

The Digital Photo Series (DPS) is a web-based application that provides access to the Natural Fuels Photo Series database and photographs, which were developed by the Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (USFS PNW Research Station). The DPS provides a user-friendly interface to browse, query, and download photo series data and high-quality photographs. The DPS can be launched within the FFT fuelbed editor for reference purposes.

Factsheets: The Digital Photo Series | The Natural Fuels Photo Series

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Fuel and Fire Tools (FFT)

Fuel and Fire Tools (FFT) is a software application that integrates several fire management tools, including the Fuel Characteristics Classification System (FCCS - version 4.0), Consume (version 5.0), Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS - version 2.0), Pile Calculator, and Digital Photo Series into a single user interface. FFT is currently supported as a downloadable desktop application (PCs only).

Download and installation instructions are at: https://depts.washington.edu/fft/

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Fuel Characteristics Classification System (FCCS)

The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS, current version 4.0) stores and classifies fuels data as fuelbeds and calculates fuel loadings, carbon and other summary fuel characteristics. It predicts surface fire behavior and a 0-9 index of surface, crown fire and available fuel potentials. The FCCS is also available as a command line version. With funding from the USGS, additional fuelbeds were recently added to FCCS to support LANDFIRE disturbance updates and fire and fuels management in common forest types of the Pacific Northwest.

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North American Wildland Fuels Database (NAWFD)

Our team collaborated with Nancy French and Mike Billmire (Michigan Tech Research Institute) on the development of an online data repository of existing biomass estimates for wildland fuels in the United States. NAWFD was funded by the Joint Fire Science Program to enable best practices for modeling national- and regional-scale fire emissions by incorporating uncertainty into fuels estimates. NAWFD aggregates fuel loading information from 26,620 field sites compiled from 271 data sources. Each data point is assigned to a LANDFIRE EVT Group fuelbed. Probability distributions are generated for each fuel stratum within each fuelbed.

The tool was developed by Mike Billmire at MTRI and is available at: https://fuels.mtri.org/

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Pile Calculator

The Piled Fuels Biomass and Emissions Calculator (Pile Calculator for short) is integrated within the FFT’s Fuelbed Editor to allow the creation and editing of pile information within fuelbeds. It is also available as a web-based tool or stand-alone tool on the FERA website.

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Smoke Emissions Reference Application (SERA)

The Smoke Emissions Reference Application (SERA) is an online repository of published emissions factors from wildland fire emissions studies in the United States and Canada. The original version of SERA was supported by the NWCG Smoke Committee (SmoC). Plans are underway to update SERA with the latest emissions factors from recent wildland fire emissions studies.

Prichard, Susan J.; O'Neill, Susan M.; Eagle, Paige; Andreu, Anne G.; Drye, Brian; Dubowy, Joel; Urbanski, Shawn; Strand, Tara M. 2020. Wildland fire emission factors in North America: synthesis of existing data, measurement needs and management applications. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 29(2): 132-147. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF19066.

Recent Publications

In Press

Povak, N.A., Salter, R.B., Hessburg, P.F., Gray, R.W., and Prichard, S.J. In prep. Fences and corridors: Exploring system-level feedbacks in large landscape simulations of active fire regimes and reburning. Fire Ecology.

Prichard, S.J., Gray, R.W., Salter, R.B., Hessburg, P.F., and Povak, N. In prep. REBURN: landscape simulation modeling of fire and vegetation dynamics in semi-arid forests of western North America. Fire Ecology.

Povak, N.A., Prichard, S.J., and Griffey, V. In prep. Drivers of fire severity in recent wildfires of north central Washington State, USA. Ecosphere.

Hessburg, P.F., Povak, N.A., Salter, R.B., Furniss, T.J., Churchill, D.J., Hagmann, R.K., Lefevre, M.E., Meigs, G.W., Prichard, S.J., and Swanson, M.E. In prep. Nonforest patchworks – core elements of resilient forest landscapes. Environmental Research Letters.


Batchelor, J.L., Rowell, E., Prichard, S., Nemens, D., Cronan, J., Kennedy, M.C. and Moskal, L.M., 2023. Quantifying forest litter fuel moisture content with terrestrial laser scanning. Remote Sensing 15(6): 1482. doi.org/10.3390/rs15061482

Cova, G., Kane, V., Prichard, S.J., Zald, H., and North, M. 2023. The outsized role of California’s largest wildfires in changing forest burn patterns and coarsening ecosystem scale. Forest Ecology and Management 528:120620.

Cova, G.R., Prichard, S.J., Rowell, E., Drye, B., Eagle, P., Kennedy, M.C. and Nemens, D.G., 2023. Evaluating close-range photogrammetry for 3D understory fuel characterization and biomass prediction in pine forests. Remote Sensing 15(19): 4837. doi.org/10.3390/rs15194837

Cullen, A.C., Prichard, S.J., Abatzoglou, J.T., Dolk, A., Kessenich, L., Bloem, S., Bukovsky, M.S., Humphrey, R., McGinnis, S., Skinner, H., & Mearns, L.O. 2023. Growing convergence research: Coproducing climate projections to inform proactive decisions for managing simultaneous wildfire risk. Risk Analysis 43: 2262–2279. doi.org/10.1111/risa.14113

Lemons, R.E., Prichard, S.J. & Kerns, B.K. 2023. Evaluating fireline effectiveness across large wildfire events in north-central Washington State. Fire Ecology 19:8. doi.org/10.1186/s42408-023-00167-6

Rocha, K.D., Silva, C.A., Cosenza, D.N., Mohan, M., Klauberg, C., Schlickmann, M.B., Xia, J., Leite, R.V., de Almeida, D.R.A., Atkins, J.W., Cardil, A., Rowell, E., Parsons, R. Sanchez-Lopez, N., Prichard, S.J., and Hudak, A.T. 2023. Crown-level structure and fuel load characterization from airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest ecosystem. Remote Sensing 15(4): 1002. doi.org/10.3390/rs15041002


D’Evelyn, S., Masuda, Y., Alvarado, E., et al. including Prichard, S. 2022. Wildfire, smoke exposure, human health, and environmental justice need to be integrated into forest restoration and management. Current Environmental Health Reports.

Gaines, W., Hessburg, P., Aplet, G., Henson, P., Prichard, S., Churchill, D., Jones, G., Isaac, D.J., and Vynne, C. 2022. Climate change and the Northwest Forest Plan: managing for dynamic landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 504: 119794.

Prichard, S.J. and Gaines, W. 2022. Wildfires in the PNW – present and future. Western Forester, December issue.

Prichard, S.J., Keane, R., Rowell, E., Hudak, A., Loudermilk, E.A., Lutes, D., Chappell, L, Hornsby, B., Hall, J., Ottmar, R.D. 2022. US Forest Service National Smoke Assessment: Fuels and Consumption. Springer.

Prichard, S.J., Rowell, E., Keane, R.E, Hudak, A.T., Lutes, D, and Loudermilk, E.L. 2022. Chapter 4: Wildland fuel characterization across space and time. In: French, N., Pruett, R., Lobata, T. Fire, Smoke and Health. American Geophysical Union, Wiley Press.

Rowell, E., Prichard, S.J., Varner, M.J. and Shearman, T.M. 2022. Re-envisioning fire and vegetation feedbacks. In: S. Goodrick and K. Speer Wildland Fire Dynamics. Cambridge University Press.

Stevens-Rumann, C.S., Prichard, S.J., Whitman, E., Parisien, M.A., and Meddens, A.J.H. 2022. Considering regeneration failure in the context of changing climate and disturbance regimes in western North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 52:1-22. https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/cjfr-2022-0054


Baker, K., Barnhart, B., Bova, A., Brookes, A., Djuang, K., Farris, C., Halama, J., Holder, A., Koplitz, S., McKane, R, Nguyen, T.K., Pasquale, R., Phan, V., Pouliot, G., Prichard, S., Skelly, D., Tarnay, L., and Vukovich. 2021. Air quality modeling of case study fires. Chapter 7 In: Comparative Assessment of the Impacts of Prescribed Fire Versus Wildfire (CAIF): A Case Study in the Western U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-21/197, 2021.

Hagmann, R. K., P. F. Hessburg, S. J. Prichard, N. A. Povak, P. M. Brown, P. Z. Fulé, R. E.Keane, E. E. Knapp, J. M. Lydersen, K. L. Metlen, M. J. Reilly, A. J. Sánchez Meador, S. L. Stephens, J. T.Stevens, A. H. Taylor, L. L. Yocom, M. A. Battaglia, D. J. Churchill, L. D. Daniels, D. A. Falk, P. Henson, J. D. Johnston, M. A. Krawchuk, C. R. Levine, G. W. Meigs, A. G. Merschel, M. P. North, H. D. Safford,T. W. Swetnam, and A. E. M. Waltz. 2021. Evidence for widespread changes in the structure, composition,and fire regimes of western North American forests. Ecological Applications 00(00):e02431. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2431

Hessburg, P.F., Prichard, S.J., Hagmann, R.K., Povak, N.A., and Lake, F.K. 2021. Wildfire and climate change adaptation of western North American forests: a case for intentional management. Invited feature: Climate change and western wildfires. Ecological Applications 00(00):e02432. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2432

Hudak, A.T., Bright, B.C., Rowell, E., Robertson, K., Pokwinski, S., Hiers, K, Prichard, S., Nowell, H, Holmes, C., Gargulinski, E.M., and Soja, A.J. 2021. Estimating surface fuel density from TLS and ALS: a two-tiered approach that accounts for sampling scale. Association of Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings.

Prichard, S.J. 2021. Fact Sheet: Adapting western North American forests to climate change and wildfires: Ten common questions. Ecological Restoration Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Prichard, S.J., Hessburg, P.F., Hagmann, R.K., Dobrowski, S., Povak, N.A., Hurteau, M.D., Kane, V.R., Keane, R.E., Kobziar, L.N., Kolden, C.A., North, M., Parks, S.A., Safford, H.D., Stevens, J.T., Yocom, L.L., Churchill, D.J., Gray, R.W., Huffman, D.W., Lake, F.K. and Khatri-Chhetri, P. 2021. Adapting western North American forests to climate change and wildfires: ten common questions. Invited feature: Climate change and western wildfires. Ecological Applications 00(00):e02432. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2433


Cansler, C.A. , Hood, S.M., Varner, J.M., et al. including Prichard S.J. 2020. The fire and tree mortality database for empirical modeling of individual tree mortality after fire. Scientific Data 7:194. https://doi-org.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/10.1038/s41597-020-0522-7

Coop, J.D., Parks, S.A., Stevens-Rumann, C.S., Crausbay, S., Higuera, P.E., Hurteau, M.D., Tepley, A., Whitman, E., Assal, T., Collins, B.M., Davis, K.T., Dobrowski, S., Falk, D.A., Fornwalt, P.J., Fulé, P.Z., Harvey, B.J., Kane, V.R., Littlefield, C.E., Margolis, E.Q., North, M., Parisien, M,-A., Prichard, S., and Rodman, K.C. 2020. Wildfire-driven forest conversion in western North American landscapes. BioScience. biaa061, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biaa061

Kennedy, M.C., Prichard, S.J., McKenzie, D. and French, N.K. 2020. Quantifying how sources of uncertainty in combustible biomass propagate to prediction of wildfire emissions. International Journal of Wildland Fire 29:793-806. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF19160

Prichard, S.J., Povak, N., Kennedy, M.C., and Peterson, D.W. 2020. Fuel treatment effectiveness following the 2014 Carlton Complex Fire in semi-arid forests of north-central Washington State. Ecological Applications. E02104. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2104

Hudak, A.T., Kato, A. Bright, B.C., Loudermilk, E.L., Ottmar, R.D., Hawley, C., Prichard, S.J., Rowell, E.M., Restaino, J., Axe, T. and Hayakawa, Y. 2020. Towards spatially explicit estimation of pre- and post-fire fuels and fuel consumption from traditional and point cloud measurements. Journal of Forestry. https://doi.org/10.1093/forsci/fxz085

Prichard, S.J., O’Neill, S.M., Urbanski, S., Eagle, P., Andreu, A. and Drye, B. 2020. Wildland fire emissions factors in North America: summary of existing datasets, measurement needs and management applications. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, 10–24. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF19066


Prichard, S.J., Kennedy, M.C., Andreu, A.G., Eagle, P.C. and French, N.H. 2019. Next-generation biomass mapping for regional emissions and carbon inventories: incorporating uncertainty in wildland fuel characterization. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005083

Soja, A., Hudak, A., Prichard, S., Triplett, S., Hiers, J.K., Ottmar, R.D. and Fischer, E.V. Fueled from below: linking fire, fuels and weather to WE-CAN. Proceedings of the 99th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting.

Gray, R.W., Christianson, A.C., Colwell, R., Hessburg, P. and Prichard, S.J. 2019. The future of prescribed burning in British Columbia. Feature article in BC Forest Professional March-April 2019.

Hessburg, P.F., Miller, C.L., Parks, S.A., Povak, N.A., Taylor, A.H., Higuera, P.E., Prichard, S.J., North, M.P., Collins, B.M., Hurteau, M.D., Larson, A.J., Allen, C.J., Stephens, S.L et al. 2019. Climate, environment, and disturbance history govern resilience of western North American forests. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7:239. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00239

Liu, Y., Kochanski, A.K., Baker, K.R., Mell, W., Linn, R., Paugam, R., Mandel, J., Fournier, A., Jenkins, M.A., Goodrick, S., Achtemeier, G., Zhao, F., Ottmar, R., French, N., Larkin, N., Brown, T., Hudak, A., Dickinson, M., Potter, B., Clements, C., Urbanski, S., Prichard, S., Watts, A., and McNamara, D. 2019. Fire behavior and smoke modeling: Model improvement and measurement needs for next generation smoke research and forecasting systems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 28:570-588. https://doi.org/10.1071/WF18204

Picotte, J.J., Arkle, R.S., Bastian, H., Benson, H., Cansler, C.A., Caprio, T., Dillon, G., Key, C.H., Klein, R.N., Kopper, K., Meddens, A., Ohlen, D., Parks, S.A., Peterson, D.W., Pilliod, D.C., Prichard, S.J., Robertson, K.M., Sparks, A.M. and Thode, A.E. 2019. Composite burn index (CBI) data for the conterminous US collected between 1996 and 2018.

Prichard, S.J., Andreu, A.G., Ottmar, R.D. and Eberhardt, E. 2019. Fuel Characteristics Classification System (FCCS) field sampling and fuelbed development guide. US Forest Service PNW Research Station General Technical Report. PNW-GTR-972. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr972.pdf

Prichard, S., Larkin, N.S., Ottmar, R., French, N.H.F., Baker, K., Brown, T., Clements, C., Dickinson, M., Hudak, A., Kochanski, A., Linn, R., Liu, Y., Potter, B., Mell, W., Tanzer, D., Urbanski, S. and Watts, A. 2019. The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment—A Plan for Integrated, Large Fire–Atmosphere Field Campaigns. Atmosphere: 10: 66. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020066


Prichard, S.J., Hessburg, P, Gray, R., Povak, N, Salter, R.B., Stevens-Rumann, C. and Morgan, P. 2018. Evaluating the influence of prior burn mosaics on subsequent wildfire behavior, severity, and fire management options. Final report to the Joint Fire Sciences Program, Project 14-1-02-30. https://www.firescience.gov/projects/14-1-02-30/project/14-1-02-30_final_report.pdf

Smith, A.M., Kolden, C.A., Prichard, S.J., Gray, R.W., Hessburg, P.F. and Balch, J.K. 2018. Recognizing women leaders in fire science. Fire 1:30. https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1020030


French, H.F., Prichard, S., Kennedy, M., Billmire, M., Andreu, A., Eagle, P., Swedin, K., Tanzer, D., Kasischke, E., Larkin, S., McKenzie, D. and Ottmar, R. 2017. Improving fuel characterization and maps useful for emissions modeling. Spring 2017 AFSC Remote Sensing Workshop: Opportunities to Apply Remote Sensing in Boreal/Arctic Wildfire Management and Science.

Hudak, A., Prichard, S., Keane, B., Loudermilk, L., Parsons, R., Seielstad, C., Rowell, E. and Skowronski, N. 2017. Hierarchical 3D fuel and consumption maps to support physics-based fire modeling. Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program. Project 16-4-01-15.

Prichard, S.J., Kennedy, M.C., Wright, C.S., Cronan, J.B. and Ottmar, R.D. 2017. Predicting forest floor and woody fuel consumption from prescribed burns in southern and western pine ecosystems of the United States. Forest Ecology and Management 405: 328-338.

Prichard, S.J., Stevens-Rumann, C.S. and Hessburg, P.F. 2017. TAMM Review. Shifting global fire regimes: lessons from reburns and research needs. Forest Ecology and Management 396: 217-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.03.035

Kennedy, M.C. and Prichard, S.J. 2017. Choose your neighborhood wisely: implications of subsampling and autocorrelation structure in simultaneous autoregression models for landscape ecology. Landscape Ecology 32:945-952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-017-0499-6

Prichard, S.J. 2017. It’s Impossible to Prevent Wildfires. So How Do We Prepare? Fortune Magazine. https://fortune.com/2017/10/19/california-wildfires-preparation.


Prichard, S.J. 2016. Learning to live with wildfire: how communities can become ‘fire adapted.’ The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/learning-to-live-with-wildfires-how-communities-can-become-fire-adapted-59508.

Crosser, M.S., Gaiser, J.C. and Prichard, S. 2016. Crisscrossing science episode: fire-adapted ecosystems. Linfield College, Linfield, OR.

French, N.H.F., McKenzie, D., Erickson, T., Koziol, B., Billmire, M., Endsley, K.A., Scheinerman, N.K., Jenkins, L., Miller, M.E., Ottmar, R. and Prichard, S.J. 2016. Annual wildland fire emissions (WFEIS v 0.5) for conterminous US and Alaska, 2001-2013. ORNL DAAC.

French, N.H.F., Prichard, S., McKenzie, D., Kennedy, M.C., Billmire, M., Ottmar, R.D. and Kasischke, E.S. 2016. Carbon, fire, and fuels: The importance of fuels and fuel characterization and the status of wildland fire fuels data for the United States. AGU Fall Meeting.

Liu, Y., Kochanski, A., Baker, K., Mell, R., Linn, R., Paugman, R., Mandel, J., Fournier, A., Jenkins, M.A., Goodrick, S., Achtemeier, G., Hudak, A., Dickinson, M., Potter, B., Clements, C., Urbanski, S., Ottmar, R., Larkin, N., Brown, T., French, N., Prichard, S., Watts, A. and McNamara, D. 2016. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE): Modeling Gaps and Data Needs. Proceedings for the 2nd International Smoke Symposium. November 14-17, 2016, Long Beach, California, USA

Ottmar, R.D., Hudak, A.T., Prichard, S.J., Wright, C.S., Restaino, J.C., Kennedy, M.C., and Vihnanek, R.E. 2016. Pre- and post-fire surface fuel and cover datasets collected in the southeastern United States for model evaluation and development – RxCADRE 2008, 2011, and 2012. International Journal of Wildland Fire. DOI:10.1071/WF15092

Stevens, J.T., Collins, B.M., Long, J.W., North, M.P., Prichard, S.J., Tarnay, L.W. and White, A.M. 2016. Evaluating potential tradeoffs among fuel treatment strategies in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1445

Stevens-Rumann, C.S., Prichard, S.J., Strand, E.K. and Morgan, P. 2016. Prior wildfires influence burn severity of subsequent large fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6:1375-1385. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2016-0185.


Gray, R.W. and Prichard, S.J. 2015. A tale of two fires: the relative effectiveness of past wildfires in mitigating wildfire behavior and effects. In: Keane, Robert E.; Jolly, Matt; Parsons, Russell; Riley, Karin. Proceedings of the large wildland fires conference; May 19-23, 2014; Missoula, MT. Proc. RMRS-P-73. Fort Collins, CO: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 290-293.


Amorim, J.H., Miranda, A.I., Valente, J., Marques, F., Borrego, C., Fernandes, J.M., Ottmar, R., Prichard, S.J., Andreu, A., Fernandes, P.M. and Cunha, J.P.S. 2014. Fire safety management based on integrated monitoring and forecast of smoke exposure. Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

French, H.F., McKenzie, D., Erickson, T., Koziol, B., Billmire, K., Endsley, A., Yager-Scheinerman, N.K, Jenkins, L, Miller, M.E., Ottmar, R.D., and Prichard, S.J. 2014. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the Wildland Fire Emissions Inventory System Earth Interactions 18:1-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-14-0002.1

Keane, R.E., Dillon, G., Drury, S., Innes, R., Morgan, P., Lutes, D., Prichard, S.J., Smith, J. and Strand, E. 2014. New and revised fire effects tools for fire management. Fire Management Today 73: 37-47.

Prichard, S.J. and Kennedy, M.C. 2014. Predicting fire severity following an extreme wildfire event: effects of fuel treatment, landform, and weather. Ecological Applications 24:571-590. https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0343.1

Prichard, S.J. and Ottmar, R.D. 2014. State of fire behavior models and their application to ecosystem and smoke management issues. SERDP/ESTCP Smoke Symposium Report. https://www.serdp- estcp.org/content/download/28268/278889/version/1/file/Smoke_Symposium_Report_Feb242014.pdf

Prichard, S.J., Karau, E., Ottmar, R.D., Wright, C., Cronan, J. and Keane, R. 2014. Evaluation of the CONSUME and FOFEM fuel consumption models in pine and mixed hardwood forests of the eastern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44: 784-795. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0499.

Stevens-Rumann, C., Prichard, S. and Morgan, P. 2014. The effects of previous wildfires on subsequent wildfire behavior and post-wildfire recovery. Northern Rockies Fire Science Network Science Review No. 1. https://www.nrfirescience.org/sites/default/files/NRFSNSciReview1_RepeatFires.pdf

French, N.H.F. McKenzie, D. Erickson, T., Koziol, B., Billmire, M., Endsley, K.A., Yager, N.A., Scheinerman, L.J., Miller, M.E., Ottmar, R. and Prichard, S.J. 2014. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System. Earth Interactions 18:1-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-14-0002.1


Pettinari, M.L., Ottmar, R.D., Prichard, S.J., Andreu, A.G., and Chuvieco, E. 2013. Development and mapping of fuel characteristics and associated fire potentials for South America. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23:643-654. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/WF12137.

Prichard, S.J., Sandberg, D.V., Ottmar, R.D., Andreu, A., Eagle, P., and Swedin, K. 2013. Fuel Characteristic Classification System version 3.0: technical documentation. PNW-GTR-887. US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

Prichard, S.J. and Peterson, D.L. 2013. Landscape analysis of fuel treatment longevity and effectiveness in the 2006 Tripod Complex Fires. Final report to the Joint Fire Sciences Program, Project 09-1-1-09. https://www.firescience.gov/projects/09-1-01-19/project/09-1-01-19_final_report.pdf


Parresol, B.R., Scott, J.H., Andreu, A., Prichard, S. and Kurth, L. 2012. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests. Forest Ecology and Management 273:50-57. https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/ja/2012/ja_2012_parresol_002.pdf

Prichard, S.J. and Kennedy, M.C. 2012. Fuel treatment effects on postfire tree mortality and beetle attack in dry mixed conifer forests, Washington State, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21: 1004-1013. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2012_prichard001.pdf

Ottmar, R.D., Prichard, S.J. Parresol, B.R. 2012. Fuel treatment effectiveness in forests of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain – an evaluation at two spatial scales. Forest Ecology and Management 272: 17-28. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2012_ottmar002.pdf

Hollingsworth, L.T., Kurth, L.L., Parresol, B.R., Ottmar, R.D., Prichard, S.J. 2012. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management 273: 43-49. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2012_hollingsworth_l001.pdf


Allain, M., Nguyen, A., Johnson, E., Williams, E., Tsai, S., Prichard, S., Freed, T., and Skiles, J. 2011. A geospatial assessment of mountain pine beetle infestations and their effect on forest health on Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. Proceedings of the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD.

Prichard, S.J., Sandberg, D.V., Ottmar, R.D. and Campbell, P.W. 2011. FCCS User’s Guide v 2.0. USDA Forest Service Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory, Seattle, WA.

2010 and earlier

Hollis, J.J., Matthews, S., Ottmar, R.D., Prichard, S.J., Slijepcevic, A., Burrows, N.D., Ward, B., Tolhurst, K.G., Anderson, W.R., and Gould, J.S. 2010. Testing woody fuel consumption models for application in Australian southern eucalypt forest fires. Forest Ecology and Management. 260: 948-964. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2010_hollis001.pdf

Prichard, S.J., Peterson, D.L. and Jacobson, K. 2010. Fuel treatments alter the effects of wildfire in dry mixed conifer forest, north-central Washington, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:1615-1626. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2009_prichard002.pdf

Prichard, S.J. and Peterson, D.L. 2010. Lessons learned from the 2006 Tripod Complex Fires: did fuel treatments reduce wildfire severity? Final report to the Joint Fire Sciences Program, Project 07-01-13.

Justice, E., Cheung, B., Danse, W., Myrick, K., Willis, M., Prichard, J. and Skiles, J. 2009. Effects of fuel treatments on carbon flux during a wildfire using satellite imagery: Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest. Proceedings of the ASPRS 2009 Annual Conference. Baltimore, MD.

Ottmar, R.D., Wright, C. and Prichard, S.J. 2009. A suite of fire, fuels, and smoke management tools. Fire Management Today 69: 34-39.

Prichard, S.J., Gedalof, Z., Oswald, W.W., and Peterson, D.L. 2009. Holocene fire and vegetation dynamics in a montane forest, North Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Quaternary Research 72:57-67. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2009_prichard001.pdf

Prichard, S.J. and Peterson, D.L. 2009. Landscape analysis of fuel treatment longevity and effectiveness in the 2006 Tripod Complex fires. Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program. Project 09-1-01-09.

Prichard, S.J., Wright, C.S., Vihnanek, R.E., and Ottmar, R.D. 2008. Predicting forest floor and woody fuel consumption from prescribed burns in ponderosa pine forests. Proceedings of the Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, Nov. 13-17, San Diego, CA.

Shiffman, B., Newcomer, M., Delgado, D., Gantenbein, C., Wang, T., Prichard, S., Schmidt, C. and Skiles, J. 2008. Burn severity assessment in the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest using NASA satellite missions. Proceedings of the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Ottmar, R.D., Sandberg, D.V., Riccardi, C.L., and Prichard, S.J. 2007. An overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System – quantifying, classifying, and creating fuelbeds for resource planning. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:2383-2393. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2007_ottmar001.pdf

Prichard, S.J. 2007. Consume user’s guide. http:/www.fs.fed.us/pnw/fera/research/smoke/consume/consume30_users_guide.pdf

Riccardi, C.L., Prichard, S.J., Sandberg, D.V. and R.D. Ottmar. 2007. Calculating physical characteristics of wildland fuels in the Fuel Characteristic Classification System. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 2413-2420. https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2007_riccardi001.pdf

Ottmar, R.D., Prichard, S.J., Vihnanek, R., Sandberg, D.V., Bluhn, B. 2006. Modification and validation of fuel consumption models for shrub and forested lands in the Southwest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory, Final Report JFSP-98-1-9-06. Seattle, WA.

Prichard, S.J., Ottmar, R.D. and Anderson, G.K. 2006. Consume 3.0 User’s Guide. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Seattle, WA.

Prichard, S.J., Wright, C.S., Vihnanek, R.E., Ottmar, R.D. 2006. Predicting forest floor and woody consumption from prescribed burns in ponderosa forests. Proceedings of the Third International Fire Ecology and Management Conference: Fire as a Global Process. San Diego, CA.

Wright, C.S. and Prichard, S.J. 2006. Biomass consumption during prescribed fires in big sagebrush ecosystems. In: Andrews, P.L., Butler, B.W. (eds). Fuels Management—how to measure success: Conference Proceedings 28-30 March 2006. Portland, OR. Proceedings Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-41. Fort Collins, CO.

Wright, C.S., Prichard, S.J., Vihnanek, R.E. and Ottmar, R.D. 2006. Predicting fuel consumption from prescribed burning trials in western forest and shrublands. Proceedings of the 3rd International Fire Ecology and Management Congress, San Diego, CA.