Alliance for Pandemic Preparedness

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report is a daily (M-F) newsletter that provides a succinct summary of the latest scientific literature related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The scientific literature on COVID-19 is rapidly evolving and these articles were selected for review based on their relevance to Washington State decision making around COVID-19 response efforts. Included in these Lit Reps are some manuscripts that have been made available online as pre-prints but have not yet undergone peer review. Please be aware of this when reviewing articles included in the Lit Reps.

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June 1, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report June 1, 2021

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were not statistically significantly different by sex or the type of mRNA vaccine administered among a cohort of US veterans (n=14,875) with a PCR test at least 7 days after receiving the second dose of an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna). Risk of breakthrough infection increased with age and anemia and was lower among Black compared to white veterans.

May 28, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 28, 2021

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were 60% effective against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 14-20 days after the first dose and 91% effective ≥7 days after the second dose in a test-negative study among symptomatic adults in Ontario, Canada between December 2020 to April 2021 (n=324,033), with even higher effectiveness against severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness remained high against variants of concern.

May 27, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 27, 2021

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections at least 14 days following the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines were 3-fold more common among those with frailty among adults aged ≥60 years, based on findings from a study that matched infected and non-infected vaccinated individuals in the UK. Vaccinated individuals who developed infection reported fewer symptoms and had 64% lower risk of hospitalization than matched non-vaccinated individuals.

May 26, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 26, 2021

An analysis of SARS-CoV-2-positive samples from hospitalized and non-hospitalized persons in Germany found that high viral loads (> 109 copies per swab) were present in 8% of samples, 1/3 of which were from pre-symptomatic, asymptomatic, or mildly symptomatic persons. Mean number of days from viral shedding onset to peak viral load was 4.3. These results indicate that some people with mild or no symptoms may be as infectious as persons with severe infection.

May 25, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 25, 2021

Based on observational results from a large case control study, the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection caused by the B.1.617.2 variant of concern (first described in India) was 34% after the first dose and 88% after the second dose. By contrast, effectiveness against the B.1.1.7 variant was 51% after the first dose and 93% after the second dose. Two doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine showed 60% effectiveness against B.1.617 compared to 66% against B.1.1.7. Findings are based upon an analysis of 12,675 sequenced cases in England (92% of which are B.1.1.7).

May 24, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 24, 2021

A population-based cohort study among pregnant people in England (n = 342,080) screened for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of delivery hospitalization found risk of fetal death (aOR = 2.2), preterm birth (aOR = 2.2), preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR = 1.6), and emergency Cesarean delivery (aOR = 1.6) were all significantly higher among SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals.

May 21, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 21, 2021

A large retrospective cohort study of US adults aged 18-65 enrolled in commercial insurance found that 14% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 9% of persons without SARS-CoV-2 infection and 13% of persons with a non-COVID viral lower respiratory tract illness developed ≥1 new clinical sequela after the acute phase of disease.

May 20, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 20, 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infections among residents of nursing homes in the US decreased among both vaccinated and unvaccinated residents over time following vaccination clinics that administered mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Cases occurred in 4.5% of vaccinated residents within 0-14 days after the first dose and declined to 0.3% of vaccinated residents 14 days after the second dose. A similar pattern was observed among unvaccinated residents, which the authors suggest indicates that high vaccination coverage, along with existing mitigation measures, conferred a degree of herd immunity among unvaccinated nursing home residents.

May 19, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 19, 2021

COVID-19 vaccination coverage among US adults aged 18-64 years was lower in rural (39%) than urban (46%) counties as of April 10, 2021 according to CDC data. Among 46 health jurisdictions where urban-rural comparisons could be assessed, only 5 had higher coverage in rural counties and another 5 had similar coverage (within 1%). Disparities persisted across age and sex.

May 18, 2021

COVID-19 Literature Situation Report May 18, 2021

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 90% effective in preventing any SARS-CoV-2 infection during 7-27 days after the second dose (protection period) compared to 1-7 days after the first dose (reference period) based on a cohort study in Israel (n=1.2 million). Vaccine effectiveness was 71% among immunosuppressed participants, 82% among those aged ≥65 years, and 52% among those in both groups.

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