Alliance for Pandemic Preparedness

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Topic: Origins Reservoir and Virus Background

February 3, 2020

The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-1 coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells

M Hoffman, et al. found that 2019-nCoV uses the same receptor, ACE2, used by SARS viruses to invade host cells; and that another cellular protease may be part of the process, presenting another potential target for therapy. They also consider how similarities with SARS may translate to 2019-nCoV transmission and pathogenicity. Sera from a convalescent…

January 31, 2020

Evolution and variation of 2019-novel coronavirus

A new phylogenetic study suggests that there may have been two different viral strains of 2019-nCoV circulating as early as a few months prior to the initial detection of the outbreak. Evidence also indicates that the Huanan seafood market at the center of early surveillance efforts may in fact not have been the primary starting…

January 29, 2020

Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event

Researchers in Greece aimed to characterize genetic relationships and to identify the presumed recombination within the sarbecovirus subgenus. Similar to other studies, they found around 96% similarity between 2019-nCoV and BatCoV RaTG13, associated with bats from Yunnan Province. Results indicate that this virus is not the result of a recent recombination event.   Results still point…

Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding

Samples from nine patients, eight with Wuhan travel history, were evaluated. Genome sequence identity between patients was 99.98%. 2019-nCoV had 88% sequence identity (similarity) with two SARS-like coronaviruses with bat origin but was less similar to SARS-CoV (79%) and MERS-CoV (50%). Receptor-binding domain structure was similar to SARS-CoV.  In line with other studies, the virus…

January 28, 2020

Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis

China-based researchers provide background on general coronavirus genome structure, replication, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. Chen, Liu, and Guo. (Jan 2020). J Med Virology. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25681

Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin

A Chinese research team reports that a previously identified coronavirus of bat origin shares 96% of its genome with 2019 n-CoV. These two viruses differ substantially from other known coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and MERS CoV, suggesting it is likely that 2019 n-CoV may also originate in bats. Zhou et al. (Jan 23 2020). PRE-PRINT. Discovery…

Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

In of 41 cases of 2019 n-CoV hospitalized by Jan 1, 2020 in Wuhan, clinical symptoms and diagnostic findings are described.  Huang et al. (Jan 24, 2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet.

Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human

Chinese researchers conducted a sequence analysis and found that 2019-nCoV appears to be a recombinant virus between the bat coronavirus and a coronavirus of unknown origin, with the most likely wildlife reservoir being snakes. Study findings also suggest a “homologous recombination within the viral receptor-binding spike glycoprotein, which may determine cross-species transmission from snake to…

A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

Using various analytic techniques, researchers found that 2019 n-CoV falls into the betacoronavirus genus, along withSARS-CoV, vat SARS-like CoV, and other coronaviruses. Virus isolation, cytopathic effects, and morphology are described. Zhu et al. (Jan 24, 2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019.NEJM. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017

A Novel Coronavirus Emerging in China — Key Questions for Impact Assessment

Researchers continue to note a gap in knowledge around disease transmission patterns, noting that while previous CoV outbreaks have often centered around nosocomial infections, this may not be the case for 2019 n-CoV. Apparent lower pathogenicity compared to SARS is called out as a potential threat for widespread transmission globally. Munster et al. (Jan 24,…