Beth Gardner

123D Anderson Hall
School of Environmental and Forest Science
University of Washington
Seattle, WA
Email: bg43 [at]

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (2002-2006)
Ph.D. Natural Resources; Minors: Biometry, GIS

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (1999-2002)
M.S. Natural Resources

Allegheny College, Meadville, PA (1995-1999)
B.S. Mathematics and Environmental Science (double major); magna cum lade


2021-present Director, Center for Quantitative Sciences, UW
2018-present Associate Professor, School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, UW
2016-2018 Assistant Professor, School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, UW
2011-2015 Assistant Professor, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University
2007 – 2010 Research Ecologist, USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

Complete list available upon request.

Micronesian Environmental Services. Forest Bird Monitoring and Assessment on Tinian Joint Region Marians (JRM) Leased Lands. PI: Beth Gardner. 2020-2023. $387,384.

Puget Sound Partnership. Harbor seal hotspot mapping. PIs: Beth Gardner, Scott Pearson. 2020-2021. $81,633

McIntire-Stennis (SEFS Internal). Evaluating the effects of smoke pollution on wildlife and human behavior and use in U.S. Forest Service land. PI: Beth Gardner. 2019-2021. $98,086

Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife.  Title: Predator-prey dynamics in Northeastern Washington. PIs: Beth Gardner, Laura Prugh, Aaron Wirsing. 2016-2022.  $296,980 to Gardner lab @ UW.


Gardner, B., McClintock, B.T., Converse, S.J. and Hostetter, N.J. 2022. Integrated animal movement and spatial capture-recapture models: simulation, implementation, and inference. Ecology.

Sanderfoot, O.V., Kaufman, J.D., and Gardner, B. 2022. Drivers of avian habitat use and detection of backyard birds in the Pacific Northwest during COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. Scientific Reports 12, 12655.

Amburgey, S.M., Yackel Adams, A.A., Gardner, B., Lardner, B., Knox, A.J., and Converse, S.J. Tools for increasing visual encounter probabilities for invasive species removal: a case study of brown treesnakes. Neobiota. 70: 107-122.

Meeker, A.L., Marzluff, J.M. and Gardner, B. 2021. Historical avifaunal change and current effects of hiking and road use on avian occupancy in a high-latitude tundra ecosystem. Ibis.

Sanderfoot, O.V., Bassing, S.B., Brusa, J.L., Emmet, R.L., Gillman, S.J., Swift, K., and Gardner, B. 2021. A review of the effects of wildfire smoke on the health and behavior of wildlife. Environmental Research Letters. 16: 123003

Emmet, R., Augustine, B., Abrahms, B., Rich, L.N., and Gardner, B. A spatial capture-recapture model for group-living species. Ecology. 00( 00):e03576. 10.1002/ecy.3576

Sanderfoot, O.V. and Gardner, B. 2021. Wildfire smoke affects detection of birds in Washington State. Ornithological Applications. 123(3).

McClintock, B.T., Abrahms, B., Chandler, R.B., Conn, P.B., Converse, S.J., Emmet, R., Gardner, B., Hostetter, N.J., and Johnson, D.S. 2021. An integrated path for spatial capture-recapture and animal movement modeling. Ecology. 00( 00):e03473. 10.1002/ecy.3473

Emmet, R., Long, R., and Gardner, B. 2021. Modeling multi-scale occupancy for monitoring rare and highly mobile species. Ecosphere. 12( 7):e03637. 10.1002/ecs2.3637

Amburgey, S.M., Yackel Adams, A.A., Gardner, B., Hostetter, N.J., Siers, S.R., McClintock, B.T., and Converse, S.J.  2021.Evaluation of camera trap-based abundance estimators for unmarked populations. Ecological Applications.  00:e02410


°Richardson, A.D., Kroeger, A.J.,Moorman, C.E., Harper, C.A., Gardner, B., Jones, M.D., Strope, B.M. 2020.Nesting ecology of Northern Bobwhite on working farms. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi:10.1002/wsb.1125

*Hostetter, N.J., Ryan, D., Grosshuesch, D., Catton, T., Malick-Wahls, S., Smith, T.A., and Gardner, B. 2020. Quantifying spatiotemporal occupancy dynamics and multi-year core use areas at a species range boundary. Diversity and Distributions. 26: 795– 805.


Cove. M., Simons, T.R., Gardner, B., and O’Connell, A.F.  2019. Towards recovery of an endangered island endemic: distributional and behavioral responses of Key Largo woodrats to exotic predator removal. Biological Conservation.  In Press.

Hostetter, N.J., Gardner, B., Sillett, T.S., Pollock, K.H., and Simons, T.R.  2019. An integrated model decomposing the components of detection probability and abundance in unmarked populations. Ecosphere. (3):e02586. 10.1002/ecs2.2586

Parsons, M.A., Lewis, J.C., Gardner, B., Chestnut, T., Ransom, J.I., Werntz, D., and Prugh, L.R.  2019. Habitat selection and spatiotemporal interactions of a reintroduced mesocarnivore.  Journal of Wildlife Management. 83:117-1184.

Sussman, A., Gardner, B., Adams, E., Salas, L., Kenow, K., Luukkonen, D., Monfils, M., Mueller, W., Williams, K., Leduc-Lapierre, M., Zipkin, E.F.  2019. A comparative analysis of common methods to identify waterbird hotspots. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1111/2041‐210X.13209


Gardner, B., Sollmann, R., Kumar, N.S.,  Jathanna, D. and Karant, K.U. 2018. State-space and movement specification in open population spatial capture-recapture models.  Ecology and Evolution. 8:10336–10344.

Cove. M., Simons, T.R., Gardner, B., and O’Connell, A.F. Co-occurrence dynamics of endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbits and free ranging domestic cats. Ecology and Evolution. 8:4042-4052.

Lashley, M.A., Cove, M.V., Chitwood, M.C., Penido, G., Gardner, B., Deperno, C.S., and Moorman, C.E. Estimating wildlife activity curves: comparison of methods and sample size. Scientific Reports. 8:4173.

Goyert, H.F., Gardner, B., Veit, R.R., Gilbert, A.T., Connelly, E.E., Duron, M., Johnson, S., and Williams, K. A.  Evaluating habitat, prey, and mesopredator associations in a community of marine birds. ICES Journal of Marine Science. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsy020

Hostetter, N. Gardner, B., Evans, A., Cramer, B., Payton, Q., Collis, K., Roby, D. 2017.  Wanted dead or alive: A state-space mark-recapture recovery model incorporating multiple recovery types and state uncertainty. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 75(7): 1117-1127.

Cove. M., Gardner, B., Simons, T.R., Kays, R., and O’Connell, A.F. 2017. Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on public lands: estimating density, activity, and diet in the Florida Keys.  Biological Invasions.  20: 333.

Cove, M.V., Simons, T.R., Gardner, B., Mauer, A.S., and O’Connell, A.F.  2017. Evaluating nest supplementation as a recovery strategy for the endangered rodents of the Florida Keys. Restoration Ecology. 25:253-260.

Mannocci, L.,  Boustany, A., Roberts, J., Palacios, D., Dunn, D., Halpin, P., Viehman, S., Moxley, J., Cleary, J., Bailey, H., Bograd, S., Becker, E., Gardner, B., Hartog, J., Hazen, E., Ferguson, M., Forney, K., Kinlan, B., Oliver, M., Perretti, C., Ridoux, V., Teo, S., and Winship, A. Temporal resolutions in species distribution models of highly mobile marine animals: Recommendations for ecologists and managers.  Diversity and Distributions. 23:1098-1109.

Pacifici, K., Reich, B. J., Miller, D.A.W., Gardner, B., Stauffer, G., Singh, S., McKerrow, A., and Collazo, J.A.  2017. Integrating multiple data sources in species distribution modeling: a framework for data fusion. Ecology. 98:840-850.

Sollmann, R.,  Mohamed, A., Niedballa, J., Bender, J., Ambu, L., Lagan, P.,  Sam Mannan, S., Langner, A., Gardner, B., Wilting, A. 2017. Quantifying mammal biodiversity co-benefits in certified tropical forests.   Diversity and Distributions. 23, 317–328.

Balderama, E., Gardner, B., Reich, B.J. 2016. A spatial-temporal double-hurdle model for extremely over-dispersed avian count data. Spatial Statistics. 18:263-275.

Gardner, B., Garner, L., Cobb, D.T., and Moorman, C.E. In Press. Factors affecting occupancy and abundance of the American Alligator at the northern extent of its range. Journal of Herpetology. 50:541-547.

Goyert, H.F., Gardner, B., Sollmann, R., Veit, R.R., Gilbert, A.T., Connelly, E.E., Williams, K. A. 2016. Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model. Ecological Applications. 26:1797-1815.

Marzluff, J.M., DeLap, J, Oleyar, M.D., Whittaker, K., and Gardner, B. 2016. Breeding dispersal by birds in a dynamic urban ecosystem. PloSOne. 11(12):e0167829.

Rodriguez, S.L., Chitwood, M.C., Peterson, M.N., Jensen, C., Gardner, B., and Hansen, H.P. 2016. Gender differences in hunter recruitment and dedication in Denmark. Wildlife Biology in Practice. 12:43-53.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Gilbert, A. T., Williams, K., Viet, R.R. 2016. A hierarchical distance sampling model to estimate abundance and covariate associations of species and communities. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 7:529-537.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Belant, J.L., Wilton, C.M., Beringer, J. 2016. Habitat associations in a recolonizing, low-density black bear population. Ecosphere. 7(8):e01406 1-11.

Bozarth, C.A., Gardner, B., Rockwood, L.L., and Maldonado, J.E. 2015. Using fecal DNA and spatial capture-recapture to characterize a recent coyote colonization. Northeastern Naturalist. 22(1):144-162.

Flanders, N.P., Gardner, B., Winiarski, K.J., Paton, P.W.C., Allison, T., and O’Connell, A.F. 2015. Key seabird areas in southern New England identified using a community occupancy model. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 533:277-290

Henry, E.H., Haddad, N.M., Wilson, J., Hughes, P., and Gardner, B. 2015. Point-count methods to monitor butterfly populations when traditional methods fail: a case study with Miami blue butterfly. Journal of Insect Conservation, 1-11.

Hostetter, N.J., B. Gardner, S.H. Schweitzer, R. Boettcher, A.L. Wilke, L. Addison, W.R. Swilling, K.H. Pollock, and T.R. Simons. 2015. Repeated count surveys help standardize multi-agency estimates of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) abundance. The Condor: Ornithological Applications. 117(3): 354-363.

Mollet, P., Kéry, M., Pasinelli, G., Royle, J. A., Gardner, B. 2015. Population size estimation for capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) using DNA-based individual recognition and spatial capture-recapture models. PlosOne. 10(6): e0129020.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Chandler, R.B., Royle, J.A., and Sillett, S. 2015. An open population hierarchical distance sampling model. Ecology, 96:325-331.

Sollmann, R., White, A.M., Gardner, B., and Manley, P.N. 2015. Investigating the effects of forest structure on the small mammal community in the Sierra Nevada using capture-recapture models for stratified populations. Mammalia Biology. 80: 247-254.

Royle, J. A., Chandler, R. B., Sollmann, R. and Gardner, B. 2014. Spatial Capture-Recapture. Academic Press, Waltham MA, USA. pp. 576.

Botero, C.A., Gardner, B., Kirby, K.R., Bulbulia, J., Gavin, M.C., and Gray, R.D. 2014. The ecology of religious beliefs. PNAS. 111(47): 16784-16789.

Bowling, S. A., Moorman, C.E., DePerno, C.S., and Gardner, B. 2014. Influence of landscape composition on Northern Bobwhite population response to field border establishment. Journal of Wildlife Management. 78(1):93-100

Carrillo-Rubio, E., Kéry, M., Morreale, S.J., Gardner, B., Sullivan, P. J., Cooch, E.G., and Lassoie, J.P. 2014. Use of Multispecies Occupancy Models to Evaluate the Response of Bird Communities to Forest Degradation Associated with Logging. Conservation Biology. 28: 1034–1044. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12261

Dunn, D.C., Boustany, A. M., Roberts, J.J., Brazer, E., Sanderson, M., Gardner, B. and Halpin, P.N. 2014. Empirical move-on rules to inform fishing strategies: a New England case study. Fish and Fisheries. 15: 359–375. doi: 10.1111/faf.12019

Ergon, T. and Gardner, B. 2014. Separating mortality and emigration: modelling space use,dispersal, and survival with robust design spatial capture-recapture data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 5(12):1327-1336.

Martin, J., Edwards, H.H., Bled, F., Fonnesbeck, C., Dupuis, J.A., Gardner, B., Koslovsky, S. M., Ward-Geiger,L. I., Carmichael, R.H., Fagan, D.E., Ross, M.A., Aven, A.M., and Royle, J.A. 2014. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. PLoS ONE 9(3): e91683. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091683

Prince, A. P., C. S. DePerno, B. Gardner, and C. E. Moorman. 2014. Survival and home range size of southeastern fox squirrels in North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist. 13(3) 456-462.

Raabe, J. K., Gardner, B. and Hightower, J. E. 2014. A spatial capture – recapture model to estimate fish survival and migration patterns from linear telemetry arrays. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 71(1):120-130.

Reich, B.J. and Gardner, B. 2014. A spatial capture-recapture model for territorial species. Environmentrics. 25(8): 630-637.

Wilton, C.M., Puckett, E.E., Beringer, J., Gardner, B., Eggert, L.S., and Belant, J.L. 2014. Trap array configuration influences estimates and precision of black bear density and abundance. PLoS ONE 9(10): e111257. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111257

Bolker, B., Gardner, B., Maunder, M., Berg, C., Brooks, M., Comita, L., Crone, E., Cubaynes, S., Davies, T., de Valpine, P., Ford, J., Gimenez, O., Kéry, M., Kim, E., Lennert-Cody, C., Magnusson, A., Martell, S. Nash, J., Nielsen, A., Regetz, J., Skaug, H., Zipkin, E. 2013. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS.  Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 4(6):501-512.

Chen, G., Kéry, M., Plattner, M., Ma, K. and Gardner, B. 2013. Imperfect detection is the rule rather than the exception in plant distribution studies. Journal of Ecology. 101:183-191.

Mattsson B.J., Zipkin E.F., Gardner B., Blank P.J., Sauer J.R., and Royle, J.A. 2013. Explaining Local-Scale Species Distributions: Relative Contributions of Spatial Autocorrelation and Landscape Heterogeneity for an Avian Assemblage. PLoS ONE. 8(2): e55097. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055097

McGowan, C.P., and Gardner, B. 2013. Evaluating methodological assumptions of catch-curve survival estimation for un-marked precocial shorebird chicks. Waterbirds. 36(1): 82-87.

Moorman, C.E., Plush, C. J., Orr, D. B., Reberg-Horton, C., and Gardner, B. 2013. Small mammal use of field borders planted as beneficial insect habitat. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 37(1):209-215.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Chandler, R.B., Shindle, D.B., Onorato, D.P., Royle, J.A. , O’Connell, A.F. 2013. Using multiple data sources provides density estimates for endangered Florida panther. Journal of Applied Ecology. 50(4):961-968.

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B., Parsons, A.W., Stocking, J.J., McClintock, B.T., Simons, T.R., Pollock, K.H., and O’Connell, A.F. 2013. A spatial mark-resight model augmented with telemetry data. Ecology. 94:553-559.

Martin, J., Edwards, H.H., Burgess, M.A., Pervival, H.F., Fagan, D.E., Gardner, B., Ortega-Ortiz, J.G., Ifju, P.G., Evers, B.S., and Rambo, T.J. 2012. Estimating distribution of hidden objects with drones: from tennis balls to manatees. PLoSONE. 7(6): e38882. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.00388

Noss, A.J., Gardner, B., Maffei, L., Cuéllar, R., Montano, R., Romero-Munoz, A., Sollmann, R. and O’ Connell, A.F. 2012. Assessment of density estimation methods for animal populations with camera traps in the Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco landscape. Animal Conservation. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00545.x

Sollmann, R., Gardner, B. and Belant, J.L. 2012. How does spatial study design affect density estimates from spatial capture-recapture models? PLoSONE 7(4): e34575. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034575

Wegan, M.T., Curtis, P.D., Rainbolt, R.E., and Gardner, B. 2012. Temporal sampling frame selection in DNA-based capture mark-recapture investigations. Ursus23(1):42–51.

Golovin, D., Krause, A., Gardner, B., Converse, S.J., and Morey, S. 2011. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning. Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI-11
*Winner of the Outstanding Paper Award

Kéry, M., Gardner, B., Stoeckle, T., Weber, D., and Royle, J.A. 2011. Spatial capture-recapture density estimation using DNA-sampled data in rare and elusive animals. Conservation Biology, 25(2): 356-364.

Martin, J., Royle, J.A., Mackenzie, D.I., Edwards, H.H., Kéry, M, and Gardner, B. 2011. Accounting for non independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian Approach. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 2: 595–601.

Oppel, S., Meirinho, A., Ramírez, I., Gardner, B., O’Connell, A.F., Louzao, M. 2011. Comparison of five modelling techniques to predict the spatial distribution and abundance of seabirds. Biological Conservation.

Reppucci J., Gardner, B., and Lucherini, M. 2011. Estimating detection and density of the Andean cat in the high Andes. Journal of Mammalogy. 92(1):140-147.

Royle, J. A., Magoun, A.J., Gardner, B., Valkenburg, P., and Lowell, R.E. 2011. Density estimation in a wolverine population using spatial capture-recapture models. Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(3):604-611.

Saracco, J.F., Royle, J.A., DeSante, D.F., and Gardner, B. 2011. Spatial modeling of survival and residency and application to the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. Journal of Ornithology. DOI 10.1007/s10336-010-0565-1

Sollmann, R., Furtado, M.M., Gardner, B., Hofer, H., Jácomo, A.T.A., Tôrres, N.M., and Silveira, L. 2011. Sex matters: Estimating jaguar density in central Brazil accounting for gender-specific detection and movement using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. Biological Conservation, 144(3):1017-1024.

2010 and earlier
Gardner, B., Reppucci J., Lucherini, M. and Royle, J.A. 2010. Spatially-explicit inference for open populations: Estimating demographic parameters from camera-trap studies. Ecology, 91(11): 3376-3383.

Royle, J.A., and Gardner, B. 2010. Hierarchical spatial capture-recapture models for estimating density from trapping arrays. pp. 163-190 in O’Connell, A., Nichols, J.D., and Karanth, K.U.(eds.) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, New York.

Kéry, M., Gardner, B., Monnerat, C. 2010. Predicting species distributions from checklist data using site-occupancy models. Journal of Biogeography, 37:1851-1862

Saracco, J.F., Royle, J.A., DeSante, D.F., and Gardner, B. 2010. Modeling spatial variation in avian survival and residency probabilities. Ecology, 91:1885‐1891.

Zipkin, E.F., Gardner, B., Gilbert, A.T., O’Connell, A.F., Royle, J.A., and Silverman, E.D. 2010. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics. Oecologia, 163(4): 893-902.

Gardner, B., Royle, J.A., Wegan, M.T., Rainbolt, R.E., and Curtis, P.D. 2010. Density estimation based on hair snare data for black bears. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74(2):318-325.

Gardner, B., Royle, J.A., and Wegan, M.T. 2009. Hierarchical models for estimating density from DNA mark – recapture studies. Ecology. 90(4), 1106-1115.

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., Morreale, S.J., and Epperly, S.P. 2008. Spatial statistical analysis of bycatch data: patterns of sea turtle bycatch in the North Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 65: 2461–2470

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., Epperly, S.P., and Morreale, S.J. 2008. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic. Endangered Species Research. Available Online at:

Gardner, B. and Sullivan, P.J. 2004. Spatial and temporal stream temperature prediction: modeling non-stationary temporal covariance structures. Water Resources Research, 40: W01102.

Rivas, A.L., Smith, S., Sullivan, P.J., Gardner, B., Aparicio, J.P., Hoogesteyn, A.L., and Castillo-Chávez, C. 2003. Identification of geographical factors associated with early spread of foot-and-mouth disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64, 1519-1527.

Gardner, B., Sullivan, P.J., and Lembo Jr., A.J. 2003. Predicting stream temperatures: geostatistical model comparison using alternative distance metrics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 60: 344-351.

Stepp, P.L. & Gardner, B. 2001. Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in the United States. Argumentation and Advocacy, 38, 69-82.

Stepp, P.L. & Gardner, B. 2001. How well are we doing: Has the sexual harassment policy in CEDA debate worked? Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 22, 22-40.