CORE and Central Area Civil Rights Campaigns Special Section

Timeline: Seattle CORE 1961-1968

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By Joan Singler

This timeline of major events was created for the forthcoming book, Seattle in Black and White: The Congress of Racial Equality and the Fight for Equal Opportunity, 1961-1968 by Joan Singler, Jean Durning, Bettylou Valentine, and Maid Adams (University of Washington Press). Rather than include it in that volume, the authors have allowed it to be published here. The newsletter Corelator is the source for these notations unless otherwise noted. Prior to February 1962 when the Corelator was launched, activities reported are from minutes of general membership meetings.

1961  

July 1961 First mailing to invite interested people to send a Freedom Rider to the South. Call to action in addressing discrimination in Seattle area. Organizing meeting.

Aug. 1961 Small group looks at which area of discrimination to address first—housing, employment, schools, police harassment. Employment is chosen as first target. Ray Cooper leaves for Mississippi to be part of National CORE’s Freedom Ride project.

Sept. 1961 Safeway is first employer to be approached by CORE, NAACP and representatives from the Baptist Ministerial Alliance. This group requested Safeway immediately hire more minorities.

Oct. 1961 No action by Safeway. Details of negotiation with Safeway reported. Rules for picket line set. Effective boycott carried out by CORE and NAACP with help from churches.

Nov. 1961 Safeway promises to meet employment demands. Constitution and ByLaws submitted to members. Ray Williams, Chairman resigns - Ed Singler assumes Chair. Campaign to find and train employees for Safeway.

Dec. 1961 Constitution approved by Seattle membership. West Coast Field Secretary from National CORE, Genevieve Hughes, visits Seattle Chapter. Orientation training held for new members.

1962

Jan, 1962 Seattle CORE applies to National CORE for official Chapter status. Dues set at $2.00 for active membership in CORE. People urged to contact Wallace Johnson for employment training. Appeal for bail money for Freedom Riders including Ray Cooper from Seattle CORE. Announcement of upcoming "Freedom Ride" film.

Feb. 1962 New hires reported at Tradewell, A & P, and Thriftway. Safeway sets up sub-hiring office at 23 rd & Union store. Freedom Ride film is previewed at First AME Church on Feb 12 th. CORE negotiators meet with Century 21 World’s Fair personnel officer who assures CORE minorities will be hired. Six month report to the membership. Joan Singler, Secretary attends National CORE conference in Covington, KY.

March 1962 Official recognition for Chapter status given to Seattle by National CORE on February 10 th. Radio KZAM gives weekly time slot to Seattle CORE. Special training set for employment negotiators. Ray Cooper returns to Mississippi for court appearance. Seattle CORE is able to raise his bail through loans and contributions. Trial date re-set for Ray in May or June. U. S. Supreme Court rules that interstate and intrastate travel facilities must be open to all persons. Jones v. O’Meara case is appealed to the US Supreme Court. Erv Smith announces five bookings set in March for showing of Freedom Ride film.

April 1962 Freedom Ride film shown in Bellevue, Bellingham, Cheney, Yakima and Vashon Island and various places in Seattle. Ray Cooper’s trial postponed until May or June and he must return to Seattle. Survey being done of minority employment in downtown Seattle. Seattle CORE conducts its own Freedom Rides to test police harassment. Tote bags made in Haywood, Tennessee sold to help raise money for displaced farmers. Central Brokers Association reports some success in finding housing outside the Central District and is soliciting additional listings of home available to any buyer. Members urged to pay their $2.00 membership dues.

May 1962 Century 21–World’s Fair have an integrated work force. National CORE asks Seattle CORE to sponsor Dick Gregory for fundraiser. Survey completed of work force at JC Penney's – now ready for negotiation. Appeal to CORE members to write letters of protest to President Kennedy concerning the violence against Louisiana CORE members in Baton Rouge. National CORE acts as a support to the Committee of Inquiry into the Administration of Justice in the Freedom Struggle—hearings to be held in Washington, D.C. on May 25 and 26 th. Appeal for money.

June 1962 [Corelator for this month is missing –following from memory and notes] Dick Gregory fund raiser is joined by Dizzy Gillespie at the Moore Theater. Event is a big success – $3400.00 raised – and after expenses, $1500.00 sent to National. Dick Gregory and James Farmer send thank you letters to Seattle CORE.

July 1962 Ray Cooper has all charges filed against him by the State of Mississippi dismissed. Recruiting volunteers for Freedom Highway Project in the South to open up restaurants, motels, and jobs. Unitarians for Social Justice have successful listing of houses for sale outside Central District and now looking for buyers. Seattle CORE recognized by National Action Council as Ed Singler is chosen to represent all West Coast CORE Chapters to the National Action Council for one year.

Aug. 1962 Jon Schaefer, Freedom Rider from Seattle is arrested and jailed for sit-in at Howard Johnson in North Carolina as part of the Freedom Highway Project. Members are encouraged to write to Jon. Erv Smith chairs distribution of 7000 leaflets in a door-to-door canvas to get word out about homes available outside the Central District. CORE members urged to write the President and Attorney General in support of Albany Movement, who are asking for desegregation of the libraries, schools, parks, lunch counters and other places of public accommodation. Mississippi Free Press, carrying details of civil rights action in the South can be ordered from Dave Dennis, Field Secretary for CORE. Subscription for 1 year, $5.20. Reminder that we all need to be registered voters.

Sept. 1962 Jon Schaefer released from Durham County Jail but stays in the South to work for National CORE. Selective Buying Campaign planned against the department stores. Training session and role playing in non-violence included in the regular meeting agenda. Chairman Ed Singler plans to attend National CORE Council meeting in San Francisco. East Shore Unitarians have 8 listings of houses in Bellevue, Mercer Island and Lake Hills. Unitarians for Social Justice have 32 homes in the North end. Harmony Homes sells the first home built and offered to minority buyers.

Oct. 1962 Notice of election of new officers to be held at the November meeting. James Farmer, National Director of CORE speaks at New Hope Baptist Church on October 6 th. Unitarians provide list of homes for sale to Urban League. Seattle CORE sends $100 to Durham NC to support Freedom Highway Project. J.C. Penney is put on notice that they need to hire more Negroes or we are ready to launch a selective buying campaign. Rhodes Dept Store hires 4 employees plus 4 Negroes in new Phone Order department. Appeal for funds for National CORE. San Francisco National meeting cancelled for lack of funds. Reggie Alleyne chairs New Voter Registration Campaign. CORE members urged to attend Mayor’s Citizen Advisory Committee on Minority Housing Hearing on October 19.

Nov. 1962 Special meeting at Washington Park Baptist Church to plan direct action against new Lucky grocery store that just opened at Empire and Union St.  CORE, the NAACP and Mt. Zion turn out 200 people for Minority Housing hearing with specific demands for integrating housing in Seattle. CORE, the NAACP, Unitarians, Urban League and ministers from Central Area churches submit ways to end segregated housing. Appeal made to encourage any young man interested to apply for Management Training program offered by JC Penney. James Farmer reported 97 restaurants integrated in North Carolina. New officers: Henry Hall, Chairman; Reggie Alleyne, Vice Chairman; Don Matson, Treasurer; Mona Swerdloff, Secretary; Joan Singler, Assistant Secretary. Membership urged to buy National CORE’s Christmas Cards.

Dec. 1962 Picket and boycott of new Lucky Store lasted 1½ days. Lucky agrees to hire more Negroes. Workshop and special meeting with new West Coast Field Secretary Fredricka Teer to be held Dec 16 th. KZAM Radio gives half hour radio spot called “This Is Core” once each week on Wednesday. Members urged to attend Dec 6 th meeting of State Board Against Discrimination considering Fair Housing legislation to the Washington State legislature. William Worthy, Civil Rights worker and reporter speaks at First AME on Dec 15 th. Committees system established with: Membership – Willie Crawford and Daisy Boyetta; Negotiations – Jean Durning and Mance Jackson; Voter Registration – John Cornethan and George LaNore; Employment – Carl Taylor, Wallace Johnson and Jean Adams; Public Relations-Ed Singler and Henry Hall; Fundraising - Bill Lynch, Norm Johnson, and Joyce Rowe; Orientation – Reggie Alleyne and Don Matson.

1963

Jan. 1963 Henry Hall takes management training position with JC Penney in the Bay Area. Reggie Alleyne takes over as Chairman. Mayor’s Committee on Housing recommends City ordinance with penalties. Mayor wants to wait on ordinance and establish Human Rights Commission. Barney Hilliard hired as management trainee by J.C. Penney in Seattle. CORE members urged to order record “Sit-In Songs” $3.95 from National office. Next orientation meeting January 8.

Feb. 1963 "Dollars For Dignity In Open Housing" Rally at the First AME Church. Organized by Central Area Committee for Open Housing and chaired by Rev McKinney to be held on Feb 8 th. James Baldwin is touring the West Coast for CORE. New Vice President slate announced. Jon Schaefer now hired as task force worker for National CORE. National CORE starts campaign against “tax free municipal bonds” used to build segregated schools. Solicitation for Seattle CORE members to attend the West Coast Regional Conference March 2 and 3 which will be held in San Francisco/Berkley. After one year of negotiations membership approves direct action campaign against A & P, Carl Taylor to head up the boycott. Reggie Alleyne hired as lobbyist for Washington State Committee for Civil Rights Legislation. ACLU of Washington awards Seattle CORE recognition for outstanding service to the cause of civil liberties.

March 1963 CORE, NAACP, and Baptist Ministers begin boycott campaign against A&P. Same day A&P hires 2 Negroes and CORE sets 60 day moratorium on boycott. CORE members asked to volunteer for Summer Task Force to work for two months in the South. John Fawcett volunteers. Tim Martin chairs, James Baldwin fundraiser scheduled for May 6 th. Bon Marche negotiation report – no progress in 30 days with 67 Negroes applying for work. Store has 10 new hires and no Negroes. Housing Committee activated, Joan Singler Chair. 1963 Legislative session buried Open Housing legislation. Around the clock vigil held in the Rotunda of the Capitol Building in Olympia to focus attention on the housing legislation. Tim Martin voted in as Vice President. Don Matson chairs new Committee on Apprenticeship Training program.

April 1963 Nine months of negotiation with Bon Marche and no new hires. Bon charge card cancellation campaign begins. Seattle CORE requests help with James Baldwin event. Patrons needed who will donate $10, which will include reception to meet Mr. Baldwin. Tickets prices are $2 general and $1 student admission. Report on West Coast Regional Conference held in Berkley. Of 100 attendees, Seattle CORE sent 16 people. James Farmer addressed the conference. Los Angeles CORE explained project “Dwell-In and Dwell-Out”. Federal Government looking to hire minorities. Volunteers needed for Housing, Apprenticeship and Bon Marche Committees. National boycott of Woolworth, Kress, H L Green and Newberry stores called to support action in Birmingham, Alabama. Martin Luther King in jail there and requested our support. New West Coast Field Secretary is Chet Duncan.

May 1963 May 6 th James Baldwin event. Thanks to Baldwin Committee. 1400 people attended and more than $2000.00 raised and sent to National. Special mailing to enlist support for Bon Marche boycott. Request that people cancel credit card and return CORE pledge card. Members asked to cancel Seattle Times subscription and call to protest the paper’s refusal to run an ad for open housing. A&P opening new store on Rainier – apply now. West Coast Regional newsletter reports L.A. and Berkley CORE taking direct action against Montgomery Ward. Seattle CORE set up telegram table at 23 rd & Union enabling people to send a telegram for 75 cents to President Kennedy urging more federal support for Civil Rights activities. National CORE Convention in Dayton, Ohio—June 27–30 th. Cost of hotel would be $3.50 per night and food for 4 day $10.00

June 1963 Two days of door-to-door leafleting about Bon boycott coordinated by Rev. Mance Jackson. Freedom March June 15 th – Rally at Mt. Zion Church and walk to the Bon Marche. Picket line to last until 6pm. Strong support for this campaign is offered by Black and White churches in Seattle. Argus publicizes Seattle Times earlier refusal to run housing ad. Seattle Times changes policy and will now run ad for open housing. Fair Housing Listing Service now has 60 homes for sale. A list of these homes is available to any interested party. Housing Committee runs tests at Crawford and Conover and Ewing and Clark, prospective Negro buyers face discrimination when realtors close offices. Listen to "This Is CORE" on KZAM radio – Tim Martin is now hosting the show.

July 1963 [Corelator missing] Ed Singler reports on National CORE Convention held in New Orleans, June 1963.

Aug. 1963 CORE Conference at Seattle University details activities of Seattle CORE. Featured speaker is West Coast Field Representative Chet Duncan. Call for more negotiators to help with Bon, Frederick & Nelson, J.C. Penney, Rhodes, MacDougall, Best, Seattle First National Bank, and A &P. Mance Jackson and Major John Cannon leave Seattle. Jean Durning is committee chair for CORE’s participation in large Seattle demonstration to observe the March On Washington. Report on housing project – Operation Windowshop caused realtors to close offices and 80% of newspapers ads were pulled on July 27 th and 28 th. Emergency Committee formed to deal with pressing issues to meet every Tuesday. Georgia Martin has put together a Speaker’s Bureau. Chairman Reggie Alleyne requests the names of anyone discriminated against in housing, employment or public accommodations.

Sept. 1963 A & P picketing resumes every Fri. Sat. & Sun chaired by David Lamb. Don’t shop at A & P. Coordinating Committee formed to run all negotiations through co-chairs Jean Adams and Reggie Alleyne. Civil Rights rally hosted by American Friends Service Committee at Opera House to include Ralph Abernathy and Bayard Rustin. More than 19 ministers, priests and rabbis in greater Seattle supported our 3½ days of picketing of the Seattle Real Estate Board Convention. Governor Albert Rosellini praises realtors for their efforts to meet the problem of housing discrimination.

Oct. 1963 Nomination of officers. Jim McCain, Director of Organization for National CORE and responsible for field workers in the South, to visit Seattle on October 23 and 24 th. Ralph Abernathy speaks at the Seattle Opera House on October 15 th. Need for A&P pickets as protest continues. Picket line includes Broadway, University, Queen Anne and Rainier stores. Raw eggs thrown at picketers at the A&P store on Broadway. Public meeting to be held at Seattle City Council on proposed Open Housing Ordinance. Request for volunteers for possible opening of Seattle CORE office. CORE members urged to have petitions in support of Open Housing Ordinance completed and turned into Rev. John Adams. Need for more helpers to put out monthly Corelator newsletter. A copy of "Letter From The Birmingham Jail" included with this Corelator.

Nov. 1963 Nomination of officers. Nov 11 th set as community-wide leafleting on A&P boycott, coordinated by Joan Singler and John Cornethan. A&P pickets harassed and physically assaulted at 13 th and Union. A&P losing $4000 per week at 13 th & Union store. Notice to CORE membership ---do not sign up to picket and become a “no show”. Report from Housing Committee – realtors now increasing the price of homes and down payments for Negro buyers and other more subtle forms of discrimination are used to discourage Negro buyers. Documentation of these practices is being sent to FHA offices in Washington, D.C. Dr. Groves with the help of Harmony Homes and a threatened lawsuit is able to buy a house in Newport Hills. Reminder to order CORE Christmas cards from National CORE. ACLU Rummage Sale on November 14–16 th.

Dec. 1963 Agreement reached with Mr. Sheehan at A&P for new hires in all 15 stores with press releases and “equal opportunity” ads in local papers. Appeal for funds to cover $400 in costs to run A&P picket. New officers are: Tim Martin, Chairman; Walt Hundley, Vice Chair; John Cornethan, Treasurer; Bettylou Valentine, Secretary; Judy Esparza, Ass't Secretary. Jon Schaefer is hired by National CORE as a field representative on the East Coast. U of W Civil Rights Action Group (CRAG) formed on campus. CRAG helps with A& P picket at Brooklyn & 43 rd. Seattle CORE mailing list reaches 1200 households.

1964

Jan. 1964 Report on current negotiations and appeal for more CORE members to be trained as negotiators. New CORE group formed in Tri-Cities. 1964 West Coast Regional Conference to be held April 17–19 th. Members urged to call Western Union and send Personal Opinion Message to Congress to pass federal Civil Rights bills. Speakers Bureau is averaging 4 engagements a week – need more speakers. Six-page report detailing housing discrimination submitted by Joan Singler is available to members. This report was sent to government officials at the federal, state and local levels, State Board Against Discrimination, ministers in the greater Seattle area, and other civil rights groups. New housing chair, Judy Esparza. Seattle CORE now has phone number and answering service. CORE sends representative to Citizens Committee for Open Housing. Voter Registration Drive with Central area Coordinating Council. Nordstrom’s Shoe Store has hired a Negro shoe salesman after being visited by Sarah Lynch and granddaughter Infanta Spence.

Feb. 1964 Reverend Paree Porter chairs Direct Action Committee, responsible for planning and carrying out all direct action projects. Tacoma turns down Housing Ordinance by 75% of voters. Co-chairs Jean Adams and Walt Hundley give detailed report on negotiations and new hires at 12 companies visited so far. Carnation Milk and Nordstrom-Best are to be added to the list. 100 people turn out to picket “Man of the Year” award given by Seattle Real Estate Board at the Olympic Hotel. No response from the Governor’s office on request by CORE to revoke licenses of realtors who discriminate in the sale of housing. Details of written agreement signed by A&P and Tim Martin, Chair of Seattle CORE.

March 1964 On March 1, 1964, CORE Executive Board postponed a sit-in planned against a real estate office until after March 10 th date for city-wide vote on Open Housing Ordinance. Housing Ordinance is voted down. The Real Estate Board, Apartment House Association and the two daily papers worked hard to defeat the ordinance. Members urged to attend West Coast CORE Conference in San Francisco April 17-19 th. On short notice Chet Duncan, West Coast Field Secretary visits Seattle; reports on huge demonstration and sit-in at San Francisco’s Sheraton Hotel. Approximately 300 CORE members were arrested. Seattle Port Commission makes changes in exclusive taxi contracts for service to and from SeaTac Airport as a result of CORE’s objection to discrimination in hiring. Thank you Mrs. Patton and phone committee for the hours on the phone that support CORE activities. Chapter short on funds again, please give.

April 1964 Picture Floor Plan direct action project covered in detail. Members urged by Chair, Judy Esparza to join the picket, sit-in, phone-in and other forms of protest. Times and P-I give misleading report that direct action campaign has no impact on Picture Floor Plan. Walt Hundley to start group interested in working on school integration. On May 23 rd & 24 th Seattle CORE will hold a retreat at Gold Creek Lodge in Woodinville…cost $4.50. Featured speaker will be Stewart Meacham, Presbyterian Minister from Alabama. CORE staged shop-in at A&P in March. A&P makes up for loss of employees and hires 6 new Negro employees 4 days after the shop-in. National CORE is asking chapters to conduct clothing drive for people in Mississippi. Interested applicants urged to apply for Business Scholarship offered by Central Association of Secretaries.

May 1964 CORE RETREAT at Gold Creek Lodge, Woodinville WA.

May 1964 CORE’s direct action campaign against Nordstrom on hold. May 15 th Nordstrom asked to resume negotiations and offered a detailed plan for hiring and training more Negro employees. Membership votes to suspend action against Picture Floor Plan for 60 Days. Chairman Tim Martin appoints a committee to re-evaluate the housing project. Picture Floor Plan and Seattle Real Estate Board institutes a court action against Seattle CORE including an injunction against demonstrations and picketing. The Fair Housing Listing Service celebrates 2 years of operation. Over 200 homes listed for sale with approximately 50 homes sold outside the Central Area, and more than a million dollars in sales. A member of CORE has filed the first case under the new King County Fair Housing Law against a Newport Hills builder. Elizabeth Patton needs more people on the phone committee. Negotiation Chair Jean Adams is looking for applicants to send to Nordstrom, Tradewell, A&P, Washington Natural Gas and several law firms. Washington Natural Gas agrees to include Negroes in print advertisement. CORE meetings to be held twice a month.

June 1964 Membership put on notice of possible direct action project against Tradewell – target date July 1 st. Investigation begins for major project against ALL businesses in Downtown Seattle. Meetings of this group will be every Monday evening. State Board Against Discrimination holding public hearing on possible discrimination in hiring by taxi companies – CORE urged to attend. Detailed report by Tim Martin on negotiations with Nordstrom and their hiring agreement. Don Matson to chair meeting at Mt. Zion Baptist Church regarding Evaluation of Housing Project. National CORE convention to be held in Kansas City, MO. Purposed changes to the constitution will be considered by Seattle CORE prior to the convention. Possible report at next meeting on progress of lawsuit filed against CORE by Picture Floor Plan and Seattle Real Estate Board.

June 1964 SPECIAL MAILING sent to pay dues and attend regular meetings or be dropped from ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP.

July 1964 Report on shop-in conducted against Tradewell Stores in Laurelhurst and picket line at the store at 23 rd & Union on July 11 th. Next demonstration against radewell will be July 17 & 18 th. Seattle CORE announces Public Social Event – Dance on August 9 th. Tickets are $2.00 with funds to be used to pay for chapter’s expenses. Liz Fusco, a member of Seattle CORE sent word from Mississippi that food and clothing is needed for those in the South cut off from public assistance due to civil rights activities. Tommie Lamb to coordinate with First AME Church for donations. Money also gladly accepted. Recap of Vigil And March June 26 – 29 at the Federal Court House. CORE maintained around the clock coverage, and sent telegrams concerning the 3 missing civil rights workers in Mississippi. Lots of support from Unitarians, Council of Churches & religious groups during vigil. Sign up for the following committees: CORE Dance, Flo Martin; Downtown Project, Walt Hundley; Rent Strike, Reggie Alleyne; Schools, Delores Alleyne.

Aug. 1964 Don’t Ride in Farwest or Graytop Cabs. Neither of these companies hires Negro drivers. CORE is currently negotiating with these two companies. The DEEDS project is in the negotiation stage. Val Valentine and Tim Martin are representing CORE, Reverend John Adams and Charles Johnson representing the CACCR. Goal set for 1200 Negroes employed in Downtown Seattle by Feb 1, 1965. CORE begins Neighborhood Meetings to get input from the community and explain the DEEDS project. Phyllis Verhuel and Cal Harris are co-chairs for this effort. The boycott of Tradewell Stores, ended on July 30 th. Tradewell hired 10 new employees, with promise of more hires in August and September. Election of Assistant Secretary. Delores Alleyne, Chair of the School Committee comments on the lack of press coverage of plans submitted by CORE to evaluate segregated schools. Rent Strike Committee, Chaired by Reggie Alleyne, adds dilapidated housing to lists of issues to be addressed. Reminder of Orientation meeting.

SPECIAL MAILING to Friends of Civil Rights explaining the groundwork done for the DEEDS project and requesting support and cooperation. Chair Tim Martin requests organizations to become sponsors of this Direct Action campaign.

SPECIAL MEETING to discuss, in the open, divisive and derogatory allegations and activities within the chapter by certain members. Meeting called by Tim Martin, Chair; Walter Hundley, Vice Chair; Betty Lou Valentine, Secretary and John Cornethan, Treasurer. More than 6 members of CORE including the Assistant Secretary are named in the complaint. Violations of CORE rules for action and the Constitution and By-Laws are grounds for censuring of the named members.

Sept. 1964 DEEDS – over 15,000 leaflets mailed and distributed in Central Area. Request for volunteers for related Jobs Rally on Oct 4 th. Jobs Rally to be held at Mt. Zion Baptist Church and co-sponsored by Unitarians, Baptist Ministers, NAACP, Urban League, Greater Seattle Council of Churches and many more. ROY WILKINS to speak at Seattle Center on 27 th of Sept…please attend. Seattle CORE offers to host Conference of West Coast CORE chapters. Ride Yellow Cabs as Graytop and Farwest are targets of our boycott. Nomination of officers announced. Police and Civil Rights Conference set for October 3 rd. Human Rights Commission invited Tim Martin and Rev. John Adams to participate as panel members along with law enforcement officers. Orientation Meeting October 7.

Oct. 1964 Election of new officers set for Nov 10 th with a review of duties for each position. Don’t Shop Downtown – DEEDS project starts Oct. 17 th and the picket line downtown set for Oct. 19 to include department stores, theaters, restaurants, etc. Progress in taxicab campaign. No official contact with CORE but we hear Farwest has agreed to change their hiring policy. State Board Against Discrimination offers to help with finding Negro cab drivers. West Coast Regional Conference cancelled and may be reset for Eugene or San Francisco. More Neighborhood Meetings are needed – contact Phyllis Verheul. CORE "adopts" a civil rights worker and pledges to raise $1300 to pay the yearly salary of one worker in the South.

Nov. 1964 The new officers elected are Walt Hundley, Chair; John Cornethan, Vice Chair; Mildred Elliott, Treasurer; Ernestine Rogers, Secretary; and Donna Matson, Asst Secy. Reminder to boycott all businesses in downtown Seattle. Big push to have lots of pickets downtown on the Friday after Thanksgiving. Adopt a Civil Rights Worker fundraiser has $1007.00 in pledges thus far. Contact Barbara Giles, or Hal Newman if you need additional information. Big mailing sent to individuals, churches and labor unions for support. Seattle CORE offered office space at 22 nd and Union. Members should look at the building on Sunday Nov 22 nd and help decide if it is suitable. West Coast Regional Conference set for Nov 27 – 29 th in Los Angeles. CORE Christmas Cards on sale $1.00 per box. Carla Chotzen will give the first $10 of any order of portrait photos to CORE. Remember Don Matson has bumper stickers on cab boycott and Ed Singler has DEEDS lawn signs.

Dec. 1964 DEEDS update. Response from 10,000-piece mailing is encouraging. Many pledge cards returned with requests for membership in CORE and offers to send money. Many businesses asking for help in finding Negro employees. City of Seattle recruiting for minority police and firemen. Pledge drive for Adopt a Civil Rights worker is $290 short of $1300 goal. Barbara Davis is now chairing this committee. CORE office is going to open and need help and furniture to fill it. Seattle CORE Christmas Party at John & Beth Fiedler’s – cost $2.00. Review of past year's activities including negotiations with more than 17 companies, including Seattle Chamber of Commerce and various levels of government.

1965

Jan. 1965 DEEDS negotiators to meet on January 11 th to review progress and to report to membership. Adopt a Civil Rights Worker almost at $1300 goal. Jobs Fair set for January 22 nd & 23 rd to be held at Seattle Public Schools Guidance Center, sponsored by the Seattle business community. Interested persons should apply for police and fireman jobs at Seattle Municipal Bldg. Staffing the new Seattle CORE office is being coordinated by Don Matson and Cal Harris. CORE Christmas party cancelled due to record snowfall. ACLU requests hearing before City Council about police brutality and need for review board. Funds needed for Operation Transfer to pay for bus tokens to allow 12 students to transfer out of schools in the Central Area. Negro Scholarship Fund raises $6500 and is able to send 29 Negro high school students to ten colleges and Edison Vocation School. Reminder to members to pay pledges for operating CORE’s office.

Feb. 1965 Membership votes to return to one monthly meeting instead of two. Report on DEEDS project by Val Valentine reviews what was gained, and confirms the memberships’ decision to stop the campaign. Other groups ask that we observe a moratorium on demonstrations due to upcoming political campaigns. Membership also challenged to evaluate the plus and minuses of a large, prolonged direct action project. A special thanks to our big DEEDS supporters – Unitarians, Shipscalers and Teachers Union. Ernst, Pay&Save, Malmo may be the next direct action target—investigation of these companies currently taking place. CORE office needs more workers. Thanks to those who helped. CORE Cabaret Dance on Feb 21 st at Norselander will cost $2.00.

March 1965 Vigil over Selma, Alabama started Fri 13 th at 6pm and lasted until Sunday March 15 th at 5pm at the steps of the Federal Courthouse. People were alerted by phone calls—signs made by David Lamb and around-the-clock stalwarts made a statement to the community. Over 2000 people signed in and list sent to President Johnson. NAACP sponsors demonstration and march on the 20 th leaving from First AME to the Federal Courthouse demanding justice and equal rights for Selma and Seattle’s minority communities. Farwest Taxi hires 2 Negro cab drivers. CORE negotiators trying to reach company officials. CORE Dance a success; we cleared $500.00. Executive Committee meetings open to anyone who wants to attend. Workshop On Civil Rights & Non-Violence being planned for May. Possible speakers, James Farmer, Bayard Rustin, Bill Bigelow and co-sponsored by the Peace Committee of the American Friends Service Committee. Don Matson chairing investigation in how to break the color line in the union apprenticeship training programs. Meeting for this group is March 31 at the CORE office.

April 1965 Agenda set for April meeting includes report on legal suit against CORE; employment reports on Langendorf Bakeries, Best's Apparel, Fisher Flouring Mills and Rainier Breweries. Membership to vote on direct action projects aimed at the restaurant industry and the University of Washington. Quick visit by National CORE Director, James Farmer—400 people turn out at Madrona Presbyterian Church to hear him. Money raised to send Farmer off to Bellingham on a chartered plane. Official Opening of the CORE office at 22 nd and Union is set for April 17 and 18. Added bonus will be a visit by Ike Reynolds, New West Coast Field Secretary. Staffing at the office will be 6 days a week and 8 hours a day. Pay'nSave doubles the number of Negroes in their stores and promised to integrate all branch stores. CRAG holds free Negro History Class every Wednesday at the Eastside YWCA. Requests for contributions to the Urban League’s Negro College Fund.

May 1965 Seattle School Board rejects Urban League’s Triad Plan to integrate Seattle Schools. CORE and NAACP issued strongly worded news release about School Board’s failure to act on school integration. Copy of letter sent to School Board signed by NAACP and CORE. Immediate plans on school issue include picketing on May 26 th and June 9 th at the School Board meetings; house meetings, and door to door leafleting. Appeal for funds for National CORE projects in the South. Neighborhood Youth Corp has jobs for young people 16 -21. CORE member Sidney Gerber, City Councilman Wing Luke and his friend Kay Ladue are missing on a flight from Wenatchee.

June 1965 Special meeting on June 15 th to decide if there are to be two action campaigns at the same time—employment and schools. The school integration campaign will include contacts with the community through churches, homes, and clubs. This will be a joint project with the NAACP and a timeline set for the end of summer. Door-to-door distribution of 10,000 leaflets is set for Saturday, June 19 th. Assemble at the CORE office. Controversy over lack of action by State Board Against Discrimination in dealing with discrimination against Negroes. Job opportunities and salaries listed for staff personnel needed by National CORE. Seattle CORE questions truth of press release by Real Estate Board that they now will sell to anyone but must also “respect the wishes of the owner.” CORE office will be open in the evenings. Thanks to those paying their pledges. Regular monthly meeting June 25 th.

July 1965 10,000 leaflets on school issue delivered door to door and NAACP mails out 1500. CORE member Sue Gottfried gives ups plans to work in the South in order to accept the position of Coordinator for the School Integration project in Seattle. Big push to get speakers to churches, homes, and clubs to gain pledges of support for School Project. Dave Lamb will be responsible for homes visits, Carl Klee for Churches, and Beatrice Hudson for Club contacts. Daisy Boyetta now a member of the King County Economic Opportunity Board announced 6 job openings at CAMP. Governor Evans says 17 of the 28 members of the Real Estate Board of WA agreed to show and sell homes to anyone regardless of race. CORE questions this news. July 10 th first meeting of Freedom Patrol takes place at Mt. Zion Church – over 200 people attended and agreed to the need for some way to check on police brutality. CORE Dance to raise needed funds planned for August.

Aug. 1965 Big push to line up support from Central Area parents for demonstrations on school integration project. Each square block to be covered by teams of 2 to visit each household. The assignment must be completed in one week. This tactic is being used successfully by National CORE in both the North and South. Cal Harris reports some token hiring in restaurant industry. Direct action is being planned. Cabaret dance at the Norselander set for August 28 th – fund raiser for Seattle CORE as we have several large debts and owe money to National CORE and they are broke too. Reflections on Los Angeles riots – can it happen here? Please attend a meeting on Sept 14 th for input and support of various War On Poverty Programs. Regional CORE Conference to be held in San Francisco and new West Coast Field Secretary, Lou Smith urges us to send delegates. Please attend the next meeting of the Freedom Patrol —date and time to be announced later.

Sept. 1965 Agenda includes reports on School Integration Campaign; Negotiations with the Restaurants; Discrimination in the Unions; and the petition campaign related to the Freedom Patrol. A Rally is set for Sat. Sept 18 th at Mt. Zion Church addressing police brutality. Send telegrams (.85 cents) to our Congressional delegation to support Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party’s challenge to be the representative from that state. Dance raises money to pay some of the office bills but more contributions needed. Nominations for officers to be taken at October meeting. Support Leon Bridges for School Board. The second Jobs Fair being held in October, and sponsored by the Chamber of Commerce. Estimates are that 50 Negroes have been hired since DEEDS project, and many with college degrees and many more with some college education and hundreds who were high school graduates. Appeals for clothing for children ages 5 – 11 years old to be sent to Lexington, Mississippi.

Oct. 1965 Restaurant Industry negotiations extended to a deadline of October 27 th. Be sure to vote on School Levy Nov 2 nd. School integration project to continue building support from both Negro and White community and will follow 5 Point Program. 1200 signatures on petition sent to U.S. Civil Rights Committee about the Reese case and police misconduct. ACLU and CORE to sponsor James Farmer at Bill of Rights dinner, December 11 th, at Mt. Zion Church, Francis White will coordinate. Tickets are $10 for singles and $25.00 for couples. A special Sponsors Cocktail Party will precede the dinner and tickets are $25.00 per person. Seattle CORE’s goal is to raise $2000 at this dinner to help National CORE—faced with overwhelming debts. Patrolman Veith is dismissed from Seattle Police force for several assaults on both Negroes and Whites.

Nov. 1965 Slate of new officers nominated. Restaurant Committee to give full report and make specific recommendations for action at this meeting. Two year history of negotiations and lack of progress with Langendorf Bakery given. Negotiation Committee to recommend time line for increase in hiring, with threat of boycott and picketing to be voted on by members. Education Committee will hold mid-month meeting at CORE office. Tickets to James Farmer Dinner are $15 per couple $10 single and $25 for sponsors and only 400 seats available at this event.

Dec. 1965 New officers: John Cornethan, chairman; Walt Hundley, vice chairman; Shari Hopperstad, secretary; Carl Klee, assistant secretary, Frenchie Adam, treasurer. Farmer Dinner gets overflow crowd. Frances White, Don Matson and Herb Harris get vote of gratitude for hard work. State Attorney Gen'l John O’Connell announces Seattle Schools eligible for state financial aid for transfer program, but Bottomly reaffirms commitment to neighborhood schools. CORE and NAACP send letter of dissatisfaction with lack of integration in Head Start Program to Dr. Bottomly. U.S. Civil Rights Commission to hold hearings in Seattle on police brutality, schools, housing and employment. CORE recruiting people to testify. Negotiations to begin Dec 14 th with Clarks Restaurants. Survey of Western Hotel and Manning Restaurants to being soon. Local 32 of Plumbers Union begins training program for 7 Negroes at local shipyard, wages $3.10 an hour. Next orientation meeting Jan 4. Office crisis: rent will be raised from $30.00 to $62.50 per month. Options would include finding another space or trying to operate with no office. Help still needed right now to cover hours that the office is open. New committees: Poverty Programs, Small Complaints, and Unions; members are needed to work on these committees.

1966

Jan. 1966 Washington State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights heard testimony on the various aspects of race relations in the Seattle area. Members urged to follow up with letters to the Commissioners with requests for a full investigation of the situation here. Seattle Teachers Association will hear from a panel on de facto segregation in Seattle and Integration Plans tried in other cities. Los Angeles CORE asks other CORE chapters to get involved in investigation and possible boycott of Sees Candy Company. Central Area Motivation Program (CAMP) opens its Multi-Services Center, public is invited to an Open House on January 27 th. Channel 9 TV has a series of programs to cover problems in the Central Area, on "Face To Face” moderated by Roberta Byrd Barr.

Feb. 1966 Detailed report on School Boycott. Executive Committee recommends CORE join with NAACP, CACCR and other groups in a two-day boycott to start March 31 st. Freedom School responsibilities covered by CORE include: Carla Chotzen, Project coordinator; Staff/Curriculum, Frenchie Adams; Site Selection, Rev John Adams; Finance, Ed O’Keefe; Leaflet and documentation, Sue Gottfried. Next planning meeting for School Boycott, Friday Feb 25 th at the CORE office. Seattle Teachers Association hear panel of experts on Integrated Education prior to adopting a policy on this issue. Disappointing poor attendance at this meeting. Clark’s Top Notch restaurant in the University District picketed by CORE. National CORE urges chapters to boycott Schenley’s wines and liquor in support of Farm Workers Boycott. Seattle CORE endorses this boycott. Medicare program needs volunteers.

Mar. 1966 Appeal made for parents to honor the boycott and send their children to FREEDOM SCHOOLS. Details of curriculum and organization of Freedom Schools covered including the list of sites for High School, Junior High and Elementary classes. American Friends Service Committee building will be pick-up point for North End and Capitol Hill students needing a ride. Donations needed for expenses of running the Freedom Schools. Special account is listed as School Integration Fund. Two TV programs will cover the School Boycott—"Face to Face" and "Viewpoint." Washington Chapter of ADA is sponsoring a panel discussion on the School Boycott at the King County Courthouse. Featured speakers will be Reverend John Adams, chair of CACCR and Mr. Frank Fiedler, principal of Washington Junior High School…public invited. Pledges to run the CORE office needed. Complaints Committee is very busy and needs help. Public Rally On School Boycott Will Be Held Saturday, March 26 at 11:00am at Tabernacle Baptist Church—Let’s have a big turnout.

April 1966 School Boycott reviewed. Over 3000 pupils attended Freedom Schools. Approximately 25% of those attending were from outside the Central Area. Thanks to Seattle Council of Churches, Catholic Interracial Council, University chapters of the Friends, SNCC and SDC. Next meeting to discuss the next phase of this campaign. Schenley Boycott produces agreement to negotiate with the Farm Workers Union. A Trucking and Union Committee has been formed and interested members should attend the next meeting on May 2 nd. End of May CORE will hold another Cabaret Dance at the Norselander. A fundraiser for Liz Fusco who is working in Sidon, Mississippi will be held in the Chinese Temple of the Smith Tower—admission is 50 cents and includes food and drinks. Seattle Human Rights Commission has opened the Seattle Job Market office at 18 th and Yesler. This is a place people can go who are looking for work. Another appeal for pledges to cover the expense of operating an office.

May 1966 School integration to be covered at a Town Hall Meeting at the First AME Church on May 31 st. What should CORE and other supporting groups do to get action from the School Board—another Boycott in the Fall? War on Poverty programs at risk due to increase in required local matching funds—please write your Congressmen and Senators. School Desegregation Training Institute is recruiting people from CORE who can attend this summer at the University of Oregon. The Institute will offer training in techniques for breaking down de facto segregation in schools. Nationally CORE is supporting the Farmworkers’ organizing efforts now against DiGeorgio. Don’t Buy S&W products and TreeSweet Juices. CORE Dance will be at the Norselander on May 29 th. Admission is $2.00. CORE night at the Cirque Theater for the preview of Raisin in the Sun will cost $2.75. A no-host cocktail party will be held prior to curtain time. Walt Hundley is elected to the Board of the American Civil Liberties Union of Washington. CORE National Convention will be held in St. Louis the first week of July. Presbyterian Interracial Council is promoting interracial harmony using home gatherings. Call the office if you can participate. Time to pay your annual dues of $2.00 and more people needed to staff the CORE office.

June 1966 Chairman John Cornethan attends the White House Conference “To Fulfill these Rights.” John says the conference was a step in the right direction, but just a step. Editorial – “Where Does Core Stand?” Questions to consider: is non-violent action still viable? Is CORE still an inter-racial organization? Are CORE Rules for Action still the guiding principal? National CORE Convention being held in Baltimore on July 1-4. Can anyone attend? Retreat is being planned for the end of July to give members a chance to discuss the aims and purposes of CORE. Seattle School Board announces change in teaching methods but no plans for integration. Reminder: just sending in money does not entitle people to active CORE membership. Active membership requires orientation training, agreeing to the Rules for Action and being voted in by the membership. Ernestine Rogers, Margaret Crocker, Calvin Harris and Karl Klee are attending the School Desegregation Training Institute at the University of Oregon. June 26 th is CACCR rally to commemorate the death of Medgar Evers and Robert Reece and support for the Civil Right Bill.

July 1966 Report on Saturday Retreat confirms CORE still includes Caucasians as members; CORE Rule for Action will be followed; and Black Power slogan is being distorted and used divisively around the country. Black Power means a unified Black voice reflecting racial pride and does NOT advocate violence. Project Equality is a campaign to bring an end to discrimination in the labor unions particularly the Building Trades. This project is launched by Archbishop Thomas Connelly with the full support of CORE. Also the Federal Government will be asked to participate in Project Equality. What is needed is an integrated work force at the proposed construction of the new Federal Building in Seattle. Frances White is giving a Lawn Party with music and refreshment to raise much- needed funds for CORE. Action by the Education Committee is postponed. Ed O’Keefe is the new coordinator for the Freedom Patrol that started approximately one year ago. The conditions that brought about the need for the Freedom Patrols still exist. The continuation of the Patrol is in question. Interested people are urged to attend a meeting on July 30 at 9:00pm. Those who are qualified will be “on patrol” after the meeting.

Aug. 1966 North-South Cross-Town Bus Committee is planning a large rally to demonstrate the widespread interest in this project. The Transit Commission has refused to consider the request of this group. This effort needs your support. Many more Office Volunteers are needed to cover office hours. Two Orientation Meetings set for the end of August and early September. ACLU is sponsoring James Meredith on September 24 th at the Seattle Center Arena. Seattle Opportunities Industrialization Centers (SOIC) is about to start under leadership of Rex Jones. CORE is preparing fact sheets on “shocking practices” by RCA and Carpenter’s Local #131. NAACP sponsors Sammy Davis Jr. and $10.00 tickets gets you into an “after show party.” CORE has sent speakers to several college campuses and Congressional District meetings. Ernie Rogers returns to Seattle from the School Desegregation Institute in Eugene, Oregon. She feels that a similar institute in Seattle would lend itself to making progress in the area of school desegregation. Cal Harris and Karl Klee will return shortly and share their experiences, The Washington State Board Against Discrimination (WSBAD) is holding a hearing on racial discrimination in the Building Trades, CORE urges people to attend.

Sept. 1966 CORE is outraged and demands action and the much-requested Police Review board after Officer James Armstrong shot and killed 16-year-old David McKenny who was fleeing from a stolen automobile. Reminders of upcoming events: report on Poverty Programs and how they affect civil rights in Seattle; September 24 th James Meredith speaking at the Seattle Center Arena – tickets $2.50 or reserved seats $5.00 or sponsorship with dinner $15.00; September 25 th, Father William DuBay who was suspended from the Priesthood for requesting the Pope remove Archbishop of Los Angeles over civil rights crisis is speaking with the sponsorship of Unitarians. Tickets are $1.00 students are .50; September 28 th Channel 9 has a program on “What’s Wrong With Civil Rights” with Walt Hundley speaking on behalf of CORE and Larry Abraham representing the John Birch Society. CORE’s Union Apprenticeship Committee is collecting cases of discrimination to present to the Washington State Board Against Discrimination hearing on November 9 and 10 in the City Council Chambers. National CORE defends the continued integration of the organization and steps being taken to pay off $200,000 debt.

Oct. 1966 Reminder, the next meeting will be nomination of officers. Membership challenged to propose directions for CORE in 1967. October 29 th at Bannon Hall on Seattle University campus the evaluation of the Desegregation Institute held in Eugene will include the three CORE members who attended. Freedom Patrol meets Saturday evening, October 29 th at the CORE office—participation encouraged. The WSBAD is holding hearings on October 25 th to obtain information regarding the effectiveness of the Standards Of Practice, adopted in 1965 by the Seattle Real Estate Board supposedly requiring realtors to offer equal service of all clients. The WSBAD is interested in hearing people who will testify. Also on November 9 th and 10 th hearings will be held by the WSBAD concerning the inaction by the local Unions to include Negroes in union apprenticeship training programs. A School For Community Action held at Mt. Zion church was an opportunity for a broad based group of 500 women who have a goal of finding ways to get the groups they represent involved. CACRC held a retreat trying to find ways to end discrimination in all areas of life for Negroes in this area. A meeting with the School Board is set for October 26. A meeting with the Governor and the Mayor has also been requested.

Nov. 1966 SEATTLE CORE reaffirms that it is an “interracial organization”that includes anyone “who wants to fight discrimination and who will adhere to CORE’s rules.” Nomination of officers to include: Chairman: John Cornethan, Chuck Hodges, Les McIntosh; Vice Chair: Chuck Hodges, Walter Hundley, Ed O’Keefe; Secretary: Carolyn Day, Dorothy Richard; Ass’t Sec'y: Dorothy Richard; Treasurer: Nancy Norton, Ed O’Keefe, Ed Russell. Orientation Meeting Tuesday, December 6 at the CORE office.

Dec. 1966 [Corelator Missing] Officers: John Cornethan, Chairman; Ed O'Keefe, Vice Chairman; Treasurer, Ed Russell; Secretary, Carolyn Day ??; Assistant Secretary, Dorothy Richard ??

1967

January [Corelator missing]

Feb. 1967 CORE moves office to new location at 1129 16 thAvenue. Housewarming for the office cancelled until further notice. Office volunteers needed – contact Mary Provo. Negro History Class held at Central Area Motivation Project (CAMP) office each Saturday. Attendance includes children in grades kindergarten thru the 6 thgrade. For more information contact Frances White. Union-Labor Committee is planning a direct action campaign against Howard S. Wright Construction Company, Ironworkers Local #86 and Seattle First National Bank. The Union Apprenticeship Committee is drafting plans to form the Freedom Industrial Union. For further information contact Don Matson. CORE is in need of money.

March 1967 Quotes from the Chairman’s Corner “For Better or worse, we are one nation and one people. We shall solve our problems together or together we shall enter a new era of social disorder and disintegration.” Report on appearance of Herb Hill, National Labor Secretary of the NAACP. State Representative Sam Smith proposal to amend Washington State Fair Housing Law passes. Sixteen Roman Catholic clergy asked the Supreme Court to strike down state laws that prohibit interracial marriages. National CORE convention will be held on the West Coast this year. Request members return coupon to continue receiving the Corelator, and a contribution for the same would be most welcome.

April 1967 The Union Apprenticeship Project is expanded into the formation of a Negro Labor Council. The Council will contest all federally funded work projects and try to work within the existing unions for an end to discrimination. Contact Dan Young or Don Matson to help. Education Committee will give a report at the April meeting. Work parties every weekend at the CORE office–can you help? Mobilization To End The War In Vietnam held April 15 this strongly supported by leaders in the Civil Rights Movement and many well known Negroes attended rallies in Washington DC, and San Francisco. Reverend Dr. King was headline speaker in Washington, DC. A large number of Seattle CORE members attended the peace rally in San Francisco. Finance Committee is sponsoring a Cabaret Dance, June3 rd at the Norselander—tickets are $5 per couple and $3 single. Channel 9 presents a film “Black Natchez” about “black people and the decision-making processes within the Negro community.” Seattle CORE supports Broadview Community Council Rent Strike. Reprint from the National Corelator covering the outrage in the Black Community over treatment of Congressman Adam Clayton Powell. Thank you to those who sent in contributions.

May 1967 [Corelator missing]

June 1967 [Corelator missing]

July 1967 The Chairman’s Corner is a reprint from “The Progressive, June 1967, “A New Kind of Power” by Martin Luther King Jr. “There is no salvation for the Negro through isolation” is the theme of this message. Seattle CORE sent four delegates to the National Convention in Oakland who will report on that meeting. A response to inquiries about inclusion of whites into membership states the resolution by Seattle CORE of July 23, 1966 has not changed: “mandates…non-violence; white people play a vital and equal role in CORE; encourages every group and individual to look beyond slogans; is an integrated, militant, non-violent civil rights organization.” At the National CORE Convention the constitution was changed and no longer is in agreement with the Seattle Constitution. There is concern about the changes and members are urged to attend the July meeting with an open mind. Our chapter is in the red and we have not paid the rent or phone bill. We cannot continue without generous support of the members and friends. Seattle Opportunities Industrialization Center (SOIC) is having their First annual picnic at Norm’s Resort at Cottage Lake. Donation is $1.00, which will help raise matching funds for OEO’s $125,000 grant. A theater party is being planned for August. General meeting will be held at the East Madison YMCA. Vice president’s Corner complained against current conditions in schools and among public officials.

Aug. 1967 Special membership meeting set for September 6 that the East Cherry YWCA at 8pm. Explanation of disagreement within the membership over support for the changes made to the National Constitution concerning inclusion or exclusion of white members and the issue of Black Power. CORE office at1129 16 thAvenue closed due to lack of funds. Chairman John Cornethan left the July meeting and Ed Russell conducted the remainder of the meeting. Jean Adams and Ed Russell appointed to conduct CORE business while the chapter is without a chairman. Financial report shows outstanding bills of $240.21. Western Regional CORE Conference to be held on Sept 2 nd and 3 rd in Weed, California. Looking for share the ride. Bring sleeping bags—meals will be the only cost. CORE’s Education Committee has produced a booklet on George Washington Bush, the state’s first Negro pioneer. Copies are available from Frances White for $1.00. Theater party fundraiser was successful socially but almost no profit. Too many CORE members did not return unused tickets, which now have to be paid for. Mailing list is to be reorganized. To receive the Corelator please send in your name and address with $2.00 to cover costs. Broadview Community Council, working for tenant’s rights, is having a fund raising cocktail party on September3 rd. Don’t forget the special meeting at the “Y" September 6.

Sept. 1967 [Corelator missing]

Oct. 1967 Report on Special meeting of September 6 th. A temporary governing body included Ira Oakes, Ed Russell, Barbara Robertson, and Bob Redwine. Ed Russell will chair this group until new officers can be nominated and elections held in November. "An Evening with George W. Bush" is a lecture on October 27 th to be held at Garfield High School. Featured speaker will be Mrs. Walter Olson of the State Capitol Museum. Lecture is free. Chairman Ed Russell met with National CORE Chairman Floyd McKissick in Eugene, Oregon to address communication problems about his visit. McKissick promises to visit Seattle CORE very soon. Mailing list is revised with a good response and people sending in $2.00. To get information on CORE activities without a central office call: Barbara Robertson, general information, Mrs. Provo mailing list or volunteer; Mrs. Adams, CORE Christmas cards; Mrs. White, orders for the George Bush booklet. Contributions reduced CORE’s outstanding debt to $173.59. Six members of Seattle CORE attended the Western Regional Conference in Weed, California. National CORE joins opposition to Vietnam war. Members urged to participate in March and demonstration of October 21 st. Letter received from Lincoln Lynch, National Associate Director urges our chapter to involve young militants and continue Black History courses being offered by Frances White. Forum to hear candidates for City Council will be November 2 nd at Garfield High School.

Nov. 1967 George Washington Bush Night a success. To honor the contribution of this Black Pioneer, Frances White proposes a memorial at Garfield High School. Mrs. Lynch and Mrs. Lightfoot who are working on the Employment Committee need help on follow up with firms already contacted. CORE is recruiting Black Youth to attend a Western Regional Black Youth Conference November 23-25 th in Los Angeles. Funds are needed to charter a bus and pay expenses—contact Linda Corr who is working on this. National Director Floyd McKissick has outlined a positive program of Black Power to unify the Black Community with six very specific goals. Getting ready for elections of 1968, Michael Ross needs help identifying Black voters. Notes and letters of support and some donations received. Order CORE Christmas cards now. Active CORE membership dues are still $2.00. Cooperative associate status is $5.00; contributing associate $15.00 and sustaining associate dues $25.00. National CORE offers three of John Killens’ powerful books for $10.00. Next meeting there will be a report by Merlean Locke on the New Politics Convention. Also there will be nominations for new officers.

Dec. 1967 Black Power Bus event was a success. CORE joins with 9 other organizations at the Freeway Hall to raise funds. Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Carl Miller express willingness to join CORE in Voter Registration project. Ron Carson heads committee to meet with transit and school officials concerning mistreatment of Black children on public buses. CORE membership sponsors two delegates to the Black Power Conference in Los Angeles. The phone bill is paid off but we still owe some back rent. Thanks to friends who sent money. Mrs. Christine Beckwith is hosting a free Christmas party including soul food and good music. CORE shares a booth with Gregory X at the Christmas Bazaar And Social, which included Peace and Labor groups. Louisiana Southern Consumers’ Coop and Mississippi Liberty House products were in big demand. Black Power buttons will be available at the December meeting as well as Mississippi Dolls and Louisiana products. Election of officers on December 21 st at East Madison Y.

1968

Jan. 1968 New Officers: Chair, Ed Russell; Vice Chair, Michael Ross; Treasurer, Ron Carson; Secretary, Linda Corr; Ass’t Secretary, Merlean Locke. CORE negotiates with Seattle Transit and the Seattle School administration over several issues concerning the bussing of Black transfer students, with some success. Ron Carson presented a budget for the coming year to include a paid staff person and an office. People can receive the Corelator even if they are not able to pay the $2.00. George Washington Bush booklet is on sale at Frederick and Nelson Dept store. Report on police brutality case will be given at the February meeting. Frances White and James Washington are helping with plans for a sculpture of George Washington Bush at Garfield High School.

Feb. 1968 Plans for extensive membership drive being discussed. Who is eligible? This question to be resolved at the next meeting. Seattle chapter of the National Council of Negro Women will present a historical pageant on “The Negro Woman –Past and Present.” February 24 th at Garfield High School. Tickets are $2.00 adult and $1.00 students. National CORE has a list of books of importance to Black people in a world dominated by Western racism. CORE sold some items at the Bazaar sponsored by Gregory X. Western Regional Conference had to be cancelled. Four students are dead and fifty are injured…fact sheet about this event offered by South Carolina State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina. Michael Ross will give a report on the Voter Registration Drive.

March 1968 Announced that CORE will be an all Black organization. Nominations will be taken for a new Chairman at the next CORE meeting. Newsletter list to be updated to secure an all Black mailing list and don’t forget CORE is in need of funds. Central area citizens should decide on school closures, not John Adams, Walt Hundley and the school board. Appeal from and for RAP BROWN who was jailed in Detroit. “Rap is being held for $100,000 ransom.” Send contributions to Rap Brown Defense Fund in Atlanta, Ga. Nominations are being taken in Washington, D.C. to honor a Washington State citizen with a statute to be placed in the United States Capitol. Write and request that George Washington Bush be so honored. Notice to White CORE members and Friends of CORE to join together as a separate group to face the challenges of combating white racism. Jean Adams invites those interested to attend a meeting March 28 th 8:00 pm at the East Madison YMCA.

April 1968 Floyd McKissick, National Director of CORE will speak at Garfield High School, April 17 at 7pm. Reception will follow at the home of Carla and Walter Chotzen. National CORE adds Kermit J. Scott who will be in charge of Chapter Development. The Black Student Union of the University of Washington will present a Black Arts Festival, May2 nd and 4 that Garfield High School. Linda Corr and 15 other youths from this area attended a Black Youth Conference in San Francisco. CORE needs active members. Too much work being done by a faithful few. We need office space at a reasonable rent that can also be for meetings. Elections were held and Mike Ross is the new Chair and Flo Ware is Vice Chair. Don't miss Floyd McKissick at Garfield, April 17 th.

This is the last Corelator found at the University of Washington Library’s Special Collections or in anyone’s private collection

Seattle’s CORE chapter spearheaded campaigns in the mid-1960s against employer discrimination and for equal opportunity hiring, and against discrimination in housing and realty. Photos above and below ares from a 1964 demonstration against the realtor Picture Floor Plans, Inc. (Courtesy of the Seattle Municipal Archives)

Research Reports

Here are illustrated essays detailing aspects of CORE's work

The 1964 Housing Election: How the Press Influenced the Campaign
by Trevor Goodloe

CORE's Drive for Equal Employment in Downtown Seattle, 1964
by Rachel Smith

CORE and the Fight Against Employer Discrimination in 1960s Seattle
by Jamie BrownThe 1965 Freedom Patrols and the Origins of Seattle's Police Accountability Movement
by Jennifer Taylor

The Seattle School Boycott of 1966
by Brooke Clark

Walter Hundley, chairman of the Seattle chapter of CORE during the DEEDS campaign, circa 1964. (Photo courtesy of the Museum of History and Industry).


Seattle businesses often claimed that no skilled African-American workers applied, and that they did everything they could to maintain an equal opportunity policy. CORE's DEEDS campaign attempted to change not just employment laws, but systems of hiring, firing, and training of African-American workers. Read about the campaign.


Proponents of Proposition 1, an open housing ordinance, demonstrate in front of the Olympic Hotel in downtown Seattle, 1964.(Photo courtesy of the Museum of History and Industry).

Below are newspaper articles taking positions for and against open housing. Click to read them.

Editorial in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer from February 28, 1964, which refused to take a clear stance on the measure.
The Central District's The Facts urged readers to demonstrate for open housing, October 18, 1963.

The UW's March 3, 1964 paper profiled students campaigning for open housing.

An anti-open housing ad published in the two major Seattle dailies, March 9, 1964. Read more about the campaign.


In 1966, CORE was part of the coalition that organized a three-day boycott to protest continued segregation in Seattle's public schools. Close to 3,000 pupils and their families participated. Read about it.

 


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