Bibliography: African American Civil Rights Movement History in Seattle

by Trevor Griffey

CIVIL RIGHTS HISTORIES

Taylor, Quintard. The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle’s Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.  (A Survey of Seattle’s African American history, with a focus on their pursuit of freedom through community building.)

Mumford, Esther Hall. Seattle's black Victorians, 1852-1901. Seattle: Ananse Press, 1980 (Provides important historical context for understanding early 20 th century African American history in Seattle.)

Dye, Douglas Mark. The Soul of the City: The Work of the Seattle Council of Churches During World War II. History PhD Dissertation. Washington State University, 1997. (A useful study of Seattle civil rights politics during World War II, with a focus on the engaged citizenship of Seattle’s Christian church leaders.)

Droker, Howard A. The Seattle Civic Unity Committee and the civil rights movement, 1944-1964. History Ph.D Dissertation. UW, 1974.  (Though focused on the Civic Unity Committee, this dissertation provides essential histories of the campaigns that dominated Seattle’s civil rights movement before African Americans turned more toward direct action, federal programs, and aggressive litigation. Campaigns include fair housing, fair employment, and school desegregation. )

Richardson, Larry Samuel. Civil Rights in Seattle: A Rhetorical Analysis of a Social Movement. Speech PhD Dissertation. Washington State University, 1975. (Surveys Seattle’s Civil Rights Movement from 1962-68, with a focus on the leadership of the Central Area Civil Rights Committee (CACRC).)

Zane, Jeffrey Gregory. America, Only Less So?: Seattle’s Central Area, 1968-1996. History Ph.D Dissertation. Notre Dame, 2001. (Provides a narrative overview of recent radical and mainstream African American civil rights campaigns, with particular attention to issues of police accountability, redlining, and community control of schools.)

Santos, Bob. Humbows, not Hot Dogs!: Memoirs of a Savvy Asian American Activist. Seattle: International Examiner Press, 2002. (Though not specifically focused on African American history, this memoir nicely situates some important African American struggles in the 1960s and 1970s in a multiracial historical context.)

 

ORAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Afro-American Project. University of Washington Library Special Collections. 1964-70

Black Project. Washington State Bicentennial Oral/ Aural History Program. 1974-7. Division of Archives and Records Management, State of Washington.

Mumford, Esther Hall, ed. Seven Stars and Orion: Reflections of the Past. Seattle: Ananse Press, 1986

Museum of History and Industry (MOHAI) online oral history catalog: http://www.seattlehistory.org/oral_history_database/oral_history_search.cfm

Washington State University (WSU) Black Oral History Interviews, 1972-74, conducted by Quintard Taylor. Website includes link to searchable database of streaming audio of original interviews, as well as abstracts of each interview. http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/finders/cass2.htm

Washington State University (WSU) Civil Rights Oral History Interviews, 2001. Relate to Spokane’s civil rights history. Conducted by Rebecca Nappi for the Spokesman Review. http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/finders/cg683.htm

 

PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTIONS

Black Heritage Society of Washington State online digital photograph collection: http://content.lib.washington.edu/imls/kcsnapshots/bhs.html

Washington State bicentennial oral history photography collection. Part of the Bicentennial Washington State Oral/Aural History Program, 1974-1977. Olympia, WA: State of Washington, Dept. of General Administration, 1977.

Museum of History and Industry (MOHAI) digital photograph collection: http://www.seattlehistory.org/mohai_rights_page.cfm

 

HISTORIC AFRICAN AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS IN SEATTLE

(NOTE: Some publications changed names over time—this list therefore includes a number of names for what was in effect the same organization. It does not include, for the most part, organizational newsletters. Most of the titles below have at least some issues available in the University of Washington Library’s Microform and Newspaper Collections: http://www.lib.washington.edu/mcnews/)

African Forum News
The Afro-American Journal
Black Voice
Builder
Cayton’s Monthly
Cayton’s Weekly
The Enterprise
The Facts
Hoy
Impulse
It’s Time
K-Zam Kazette
The Messenger
News Forum
Northwest Bulletin
Northwest Clarion
Northwest Clarion and Pacific Dispatch
Northwest Enterprise
Northwest Herald
Pacific Dispatch
Pacific Leader
Pacific Northwest Bulletin
Progressive Herald
Puget Sound and Inland Empire Observer
Puget Sound Observer
Renaissance Courier
Republican
Sasa Ni Saa
The Searchlight
Seattle Dispatch
Seattle Medium
Seattle Observer
Seattle Republican
Skanner
Trumpet
The Truth

 

SURVEYS OF HISTORIC AFRICAN AMERICAN SITES

“Central District: Historic and Cultural Resources.” Historic Seattle Preservation and Development Authority, 1995.

Henry, Mary T. Tribute: A Guide to Seattle's Public Parks and Buildings Named for Black People: with Brief Biographical Sketches. Drawings by Marilyn H. Henry. Seattle, WA: Statice Press, 1997.

Lawson, Jacqueline E., “Let's Take a Walk!: A Tour of Seattle's Central Area As It Was Then (1920s and 1930s).” Seattle, WA: J. Lawson, 2000.

Lowe, Turkiya L. and Quintard Taylor. “Recommendations for National Register Designation of Properties Associated with Civil Rights in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.” Submitted to National Park Service, Columbia Cascades Support Office.

Mumford, Esther Hall. Calabash: A Guide to the History, Culture, and Art of African Americans in Seattle and King County, Washington. Seattle: Ananse Press, 1993.

Mumford, Esther Hall. “Black Heritage survey of Washington State.” Olympia, WA: State of Washington, 1985.

 

MIGRATION AND POPULATION

Bryant, Nathaniel H. Black Migration and the Settlement of the Puget Sound Country. Geography MA Thesis, University of Washington, 1972.

Kerr, Clark. Migration to the Seattle Labor Market Area, 1940-42. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1946.

Schmid, Calvin F. and Wayne W. McVey. Growth and Distribution of Minority Races in Seattle, Washington. Seattle: Seattle Public Schools, 1964.

Schmid, Calvin F and Charles E. Nobbe and Arlene E. Mitchell. Nonwhite Races, State of Washington. Oylmpia, WA: State Planning and Community Affairs Agency, 1968.

 

CAYTON FAMILY

Susie Revels Cayton: "The Part She Played" by Michelle L. Goshorn. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Revels Cayton: African American Communist and Labor Activist by Sarah Falconer. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Historylink.org article: http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=309

Cayton, Horace, Jr. Long Old Road. Seattle, Seattle: UW Press, 1964.

Diaz, Ed, ed. Horace Roscoe Cayton: Selected Writings. Seattle: Bridgewater-Collins, 2003.

Hobbs, Richard S. Autobiographical writings of Horace R. Cayton, Sr., published in Cayton's weekly, 1917-1920. Awali, Bahrain: Richard Hobbs, 1987.

Hobbs, Richard S. The Cayton Legacy: Two Generations of a Black Family, 1859-1976. History Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1989.

Hobbs, Richard S. The Cayton Legacy: An African American Family. Pullman, WA.: WSU Press, 2002.

Stevens, Stanley D., ed. Carry On!: The Carli & Stanley Stevens' Collection of Correspondence & Memorabilia from and about Horace Roscoe Cayton Jr. Santa Cruz, CA.: S.D. Stevens, 2003. SEATTLE CIVIC UNITY COMMITTEE

Droker, Howard A. The Seattle Civic Unity Committee and the Civil Rights Movement, 1944-1964. History Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1974.

Garrity, Frederick Dennis. The Civic Unity Committee of Seattle, 1944-1964. History MA Thesis. University of Washington, 1971.

Walters, Bert. Process in Race Relations Utilized by the Seattle Civic Unity Committee. MSW Thesis. University of Washington, 1951.

 

AFRICAN AMERICANS, LABOR UNIONS, AND FAIR EMPLOYMENT

Battle at Boeing: African Americans and the Campaign for Jobs, 1939-1942 by Sarah Miner. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Black Longshoreman: The Frank Jenkins Story by Megan Elston. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Revels Cayton: African American Communist and Labor Activist by Sarah Falconer. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Tyree Scott and the United Construction Workers Association by Trevor Griffey. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Electrical Workers Minority Caucus: A History  by Nicole Grant. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Organized Labor and Seattle's African American Community: 1916-1920 by Jon Wright. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU), Local 19. “The ILWU Story: Human Rights, Minorities, and Women” http://www.ilwu19.com/history/the_ilwu_story/human_rights.htm

Brimmer, Andrew Felton. “Some Economic Aspects of Fair Employment.” Economics MA Thesis. University of Washington, 1951.

Council of Social Agencies. “Review of Social and Economic Conditions in the City of Seattle, Washington as they Relate to the Work of the Seattle Urban League.” Seattle: National Urban League Department of Research, 1943.

Frank, Dana. “Race Relations and the Seattle Labor Movement, 1915-1929.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly (Winter 1994/1995): 35-44

Friedman, Ralph. The Attitudes of West Coast Maritime Unions in Seattle Toward Negroes in the Maritime Industry MA Thesis. Washington State University, 1952.

Gould, William B, “The Seattle Building Trades Decree,” in Black Workers in White Unions: Job Discrimination in the United States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977.

Hopkins, William S. Job Opportunities for Racial Minorities in the Seattle Area. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1948.

Jackson, Joseph Sylvester. The Colored Marine Employees Benevolent Association of the Pacific, 1921-1934; or, Implications of Vertical Mobility for Negro Stewards in Seattle. Sociology MA Thesis, University of Washington, 1939.

Jahn, Julius Armin. Principles and Methods of Area Sampling Applied to a Survey of Employment, Housing, and Place of Residence of White and non-White Ethnic Groups in Seattle, Washington, July to October 1947. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1949.

Keller, David. Seattle’s Segregated Musicians’ Union, Local 493, 1918-1956. History MA Thesis. Western Washington University, 1996.

Little, William A. Community Organization and Leadership: A Case Study of Minority Workers in Seattle. Political Science Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1976.

McCann, John. Labor and the Making of the Postwar Order at the Boeing Company. Ph.D Dissertation. University of Oregon, 1994.

Pitts, Robert. Organized Labor and the Negro in Seattle. Economics MA Thesis, University of Washington, 1941.

Smith, Stanley H. The Social Aspects of the Washington State Law Against Discrimination in Employment. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. State College of Washington (now Washington State University), 1953.

Smith, Stanly Hugh. Freedom to Work. New York: Vintage Press, 1955.

Valentine, Charles A. “DEEDS, background and basis; a report on research leading to the drive for equal employment in downtown Seattle.” Seattle, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1964.

 

CENTRAL DISTRICT NEIGHBORHOOD, OPEN HOUSING, AND GENTRIFICATION

Segregated Seattle  Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Racial Restrictive Covenants   Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

The Seattle Open Housing Campaign, 1959-1968. Digital Document Library Seattle Municipal Archives http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/doclibrary/OHousing

Historylink.org history of the Central District http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=3079

“Red-Line Research Group study : do red-lining practices exist in Seattle's Central Area?: Where? : How enforced?” Submitted by the Red-Line Study Group, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Washington, 451A. 1974

Amdur, Reuel Seeman. An Exploratory Study of Nineteen Negro Families in the Seattle Area Who Were First Negro Residents in White Neighborhoods, of Their White Neighbors, and of the Integration Process, Together with a Proposed Program to Promote Integration in Seattle. MSW Thesis, University of Washington, 1962

Andrews, Rebecca L. A Changing Community: A Study of the Impacts of Gentrification and the Possibilities for Equitable Development in Seattle’s Central District. Public Administration MA Thesis. Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, 2003. http://evans.washington.edu/research/psclinic/pdf/02-03dp/RebeccaAndrewsDP.pdf

Evans, Ronald L. How People Help Themselves; A Study of Locality Based Mutual Aid on Nine City Blocks of the Seattle Central Area. MSW Thesis, University of Washington, 1972.

Fei, John C. H. Rent Differentiation Related to Segregated Housing Markets for Racial Groups - with Special Reference to Seattle, Washington. Economics Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1949.

Gossett, Larry and Mike Williams. “ Seattle's Central District: A Community Study.” Seattle: Central District Community Council, 1977.

Griffey, Brian. Race, Class, and Context: Residential and Economic Changes in World War II-Era Black Seattle, 1935-1950. History BA Thesis, Reed College, 2001.

Griffiths, Keith S. The Measurement of Intergroup Tensions In the State of Washington and City of Seattle: Analysis of Two Surveys Conducted Under the Auspices of the Washington Public Opinion Laboratory. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1952.

Hatt, Paul Kitchener. A Study of Natural Areas in the Central Residential District of Seattle. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1945.

Hruza, Franklyn Lee. Seattle Model Cities Program: A Case Study of Citizen Participation in the Planning Process During the Initial Planning Year, 1967-1968. Urban Planning MA Thesis. University of Washington, 1972.

Jahn, Julius Armin. Principles and Methods of Area Sampling Applied to a Survey of Employment, Housing, and Place of Residence of White and non-White Ethnic Groups in Seattle, Washington, July to October 1947. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1949.

Marston, Wilfred George. A Study of Factors Relating to Population Decline and Changes in the Central Area of Seattle. Sociology PhD Dissertation. University of Washington, 1963.

Moore, Rebecca. Anyplace But Here: The Seattle Campaign for Open Housing, 1950-1969. MA Thesis. Western Washington University, 1995.

Northwood, L.K. and Ernest A.T. Barth. Urban Desegregation; Negro Pioneers and Their White Neighbors. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965.

O’Hagan, Patrick L. Trends in Residential Segregation, Washington State, 1970-1990. MA Thesis, Western Washington University, 1995.

Pankey, Katharine I. Grant. Restrictive Covenants in Seattle: A Study in Race Relations. BA Thesis. University of Washington, 1947.

Pate, Carl Edward. What Has Happened to Seattle's Black Community?: Exploring the Changes in the Central District. Sociology Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 2000.

Vega, David. Can Political Incorporation Help African Americans?: A Case Study of Seattle. Political Science Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1997.

Watts , Lewis Gould. An Evaluation of a Community Organization Case Record Relative to a Racial Tension Situation. MSW Thesis. University of Washington, 1949.

Washington State Board Against Discrimination. “Guidelines for consideration of the housing problem.” Olympia, WA: State of Washington, 1968.

Washnis, George J. Community Development Strategies; Case Studies of Major Model Cities. New York: Praeger, 1974.

Williams, DeCharlene. “History of Seattles' [sic] Central Area.” Seattle, WA: Central Area Chamber of Commerce, 1990.

 

SCHOOL DESEGREGATION AND EDUCATIONAL CONTROL

The Seattle School Boycott of 1966 by Brooke Clark. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Kohn, Laura. “Priority Shift: The Fate of Mandatory Busing for School Desegregation in Seattle and the Nation.” Research paper for the University of Washington’s Institute for Public Policy and Management. March, 1996. http://www.crpe.org/pubs/pdf/priorityshift_kohn.pdf

Myers-Jones, Holly Jeanne. Geographical Analysis of Political Opposition to Busing in Seattle. Geography Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1980.

Orians, Carlyn Elizabeth. School Desegregation and Residential Segregation: The Seattle Metropolitan Experience. Geography Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1989.

Pieroth, Doris Hinson. Desegregating the Public Schools, Seattle, Washington, 1954-1968. History Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1979.

Siqueland, Ann LaGrelius. Without a Court Order: The Desegregation of Seattle's Schools. Seattle, WA: Madrona, 1981.

Catherine E. Veninga. Road scholars: School busing and the politics of integration in Seattle. Geography PhD Dissertation, University of Washington, 2005.

Walker, Dianne Louise. The University of Washington Establishment and the Black Student Union Sit-In of 1968. History MA Thesis, University of Washington, 1980.

Whitehead, Robert Eugene. Attitudes of suburban groups toward Negroes and inter-district busing of students. Education MA Thesis. University of Washington, 1969.

 

POLITICS OF POLICE ACCOUNTABILITY

1965 Freedom Patrols and the Origins of Seattle's Police Accountability Movement by Jennifer Taylor. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

Hayler, Barbara Jean. Police Patrol Activity and the Definition of Public Order. Political Science Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1984.

Lyons, William Thomas, Jr. Taking Community Seriously: Policing Reform in Southeast Seattle. Political Science Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1995.

Miller, Lisa L. Taking Control: Race, Community and the Politics of Crime Prevention. Political Science Ph.D Dissertation. University of Washington, 1999.

Miller, Lisa L. The Politics of Community Crime Prevention: Implementing Operation Weed and Seed in Seattle. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001.

Mayor's Advisory Committee on Police Practices. Report. City of Seattle, 1956.

Reed, Wilson Edward. The Politics of Community Policing: The Case of Seattle. New York: Garland Pub., 1999.

Scheingold, Stuart A. The Politics of Street Crime: Criminal Process and Cultural Obsession. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991. (A political science study of Seattle’s police accountability politics in the 1970s and 1980s. The book’s sources are all given pseudonyms, and Seattle is referred to only as “ Cedar City.” )

Stotland, Ezra and William Guppy. “Community Relations Training in the Seattle Police Academy.” Journal of Social Issues 1975 31(3): 139-144

 

RIOT POLITICS OF 1968

Municipal League of Seattle and King County. “ Report on civil disorders to the Washington State Commission on the Cause and Prevention of Civil Disorders.” 1968.

Washington Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Civil Disorder. Race and Violence in Washington State. Presented to the Urban Affairs Council and Governor Daniel J. Evans, Feb. 1969

 

BLACK PANTHER PARTY FOR SELF DEFENSE, SEATTLE CHAPTER

Seattle Black Panther Party History and Memory Project Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

The Black Panther Party in Seattle 1968-1970 by Kurt Schaefer. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

It’s About Time: Black Panther Party Legacy and Alumni http://www.itsabouttimebpp.com/Chapter_History/chapter_history_index.html#seattle

“Part 2, Investigation of Seattle Chapter”, from United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security Black Panther Party. Hearings, Ninety-first Congress, second session. Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1970-71 1970 U.S.. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project <www.civilrights.washington.edu>

 

Copyright(c) 2006 Trevor Griffey

 

 
 

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