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[Skill Modules >> Pulmonary Examination >> Pathophysiology ]

Pathophysiology: Pulmonary Examination

The voice sounds consist of:
  1. Vocal resonance: The voice sounds heard upon the chest
  2. Bronchophony: Vocal resonance increased in intensity and clearness
  3. Pectoriloquy: Exaggerated bronchophony with articulated overtones-syllabic speech. Whispered pectoriloquy: sounds heard with whispered voice
  4. Egophony: A variety of bronchophony having a nasal or bleating quality.

These sounds are elicited by ausculting over different areas of the chest wall, while the patient speaks slowly or whispers. In the former case the patient should be told to slowly and loudly pronounce, "one-one-one," or "ninety-nine" in the lowest range of his natural speaking voice. The examiner should observe any differences in clearness or intensity of sounds over symmetrical areas of the chest.

(Source: Norris)

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