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[Skill Modules >> Thyroid >> Pathophysiology ]

Pathophysiology: Thyroid

Enlarged Thyroid


The normal thyroid is estimated to be 10 grams or less, with an upper limit of normal 20 grams in iodine replete areas such as the United States. Using this definition, the prevalence of goiter in the US is 2 to 5%.

Conditions that may present with an enlarged thyroid gland
  • Iodine deficiency goiter (especially in endemic areas)
  • Familial goiter
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
  • Multinodular goiter
  • Graves' disease
  • Painless postpartum Thyroiditis
  • Malignancy
  • Goitergens
  • Iodine excess

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