Human Photonics Laboratory

3D Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy

3D Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy

Slice of BT-474 Cancer Cell

Slice of BT-474 cancer cell with segmentation/visualization of central nucleus and cytoplasm. doi:10.1117/1.JMI.1.1.017501

Currently diseases are diagnosed using a conventional optical microscope in a pathology or cytology lab after the cells have been fixed and stained. These images from cells on a microscope slide are two-dimensional (2D) from a single perspective view, like an old-fashion chest X-ray. What if these images are three-dimensional like a CT scan used for earlier detection and localization of lung nodules? This advancement is what has been created with the Optical Projection Tomography Microscopy (OPTM) or Cell-CT instrument, (Cell-CT is a trademark of VisionGate Inc. and all movies are Copyright 2008 VisionGate Inc.).

Volumetric (3D) optical imaging of individual cells and nuclei for the earliest detection of cancerous and pre-cancerous conditions, infectious diseases, and effect of drug therapies. In most pathological and cytological analyses, tissue biopsies and cells are imaged in vitro (outside the body) using standard optical microscopes and absorption-based stains. Although cells and nuclei are three-dimensional, this standard imaging technique is only two-dimensional with only one viewing perspective. The development of the Optical Projection Tomography Microscope (OPTM) has allowed 180-degree viewing of individual cells and nuclei at submicron spatial resolution that is isometric. Three-dimensional features are more easily recognized and quantitatively measured using the OPTM, such as the volume, 3D-shape, surface area, surface texture, and 3D features of nuclear invaginations can be used as more sensitive classifiers for earlier conditions of cancer and pre-cancer.

Publications

The following HPL publications are related to this research area:

2014

  • [DOI] N. Agarwal, A. M. Biancardi, F. W. Patten, A. P. Reeves, and E. J. Seibel, “Three-dimensional DNA image cytometry by optical projection tomographic microscopy for early cancer diagnosis,” Journal of medical imaging, vol. 1, iss. 1, p. 17501, 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Agarwal2014a,
    author = {Agarwal, Nitin and Biancardi, Alberto M. and Patten, Florence W. and Reeves, Anthony P. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    doi = {10.1117/1.JMI.1.1.017501},
    issn = {2329-4302},
    journal = {Journal of Medical Imaging},
    keywords = {11,18,20,2014,accepted for publication may,cancer diagnosis,dna index,flow cytometry,image cytometry,imaging,online jun,optical projection tomography microscope,paper 14002pr received jan,published,revised manuscript received apr,three-dimensional image processing,volumetric},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = jun,
    number = {1},
    pages = {017501},
    title = {{Three-dimensional DNA image cytometry by optical projection tomographic microscopy for early cancer diagnosis}},
    url = {http://medicalimaging.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?doi=10.1117/1.JMI.1.1.017501},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • N. Agarwal, Y. Xie, F. W. Patten, A. P. Reeves, and E. J. Seibel, “DNA Ploidy Measure of Feulgen-Stained Cancer Cells using Three-Dimensional Image Cytometry,” in 2014 health innovations and point-of-care technologies conference, Seattle, WA, 2014, pp. 6-9.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Agarwal2014,
    address = {Seattle, WA},
    author = {Agarwal, Nitin and Xie, Yiting and Patten, Florence W and Reeves, Anthony P and Seibel, Eric J},
    booktitle = {2014 Health Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference},
    isbn = {9781479929184},
    keywords = {Biomarkers,Imaging,Medical devices},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    pages = {6--9},
    title = {{DNA Ploidy Measure of Feulgen-Stained Cancer Cells using Three-Dimensional Image Cytometry}},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] R. Das, A. Agrawal, M. P. Upton, and E. J. Seibel, “Optically clearing tissue as an initial step for 3D imaging of core biopsies to diagnose pancreatic cancer,” in Optical interactions with tissue and cells xxv, 2014, p. 89410N.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Das2014,
    author = {Das, Ronnie and Agrawal, Aishwarya and Upton, Melissa P. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    booktitle = {Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXV},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2041114},
    editor = {Jansen, E. Duco and Thomas, Robert J. and Wilmink, Gerald J. and Ibey, Bennett L.},
    keywords = {3d imaging,3d pathology,an initial step for,core biopsy processing,diagnose pancreatic cancer,of core biopsies to,optical clearing,optically clearing tissue as,specimen preparation},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    pages = {89410N},
    title = {{Optically clearing tissue as an initial step for 3D imaging of core biopsies to diagnose pancreatic cancer}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?doi=10.1117/12.2041114},
    volume = {8941},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] R. Das, C. W. Burfeind, G. M. Kramer, and E. J. Seibel, “Pathology in a tube: Step 1. Fixing, staining, and transporting pancreatic core biopsies in a microfluidic device for 3D imaging,” in Microfluidics, biomems, and medical microsystems xii, 2014, p. 89760R.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Das2014b,
    author = {Das, Ronnie and Burfeind, Chris W. and Kramer, Greg M. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    booktitle = {Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems XII},
    doi = {10.1117/12.2041106},
    editor = {Gray, Bonnie L. and Becker, Holger},
    keywords = {3d imaging,3d pathology,a microfluidic device for,core biopsy transport,fixing,optical imaging,pancreatic core biopsies in,pathology in a tube,sample preparation,staining and transporting,step 1,tissue microfluidics},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = mar,
    pages = {89760R},
    title = {{Pathology in a tube: Step 1. Fixing, staining, and transporting pancreatic core biopsies in a microfluidic device for 3D imaging}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?doi=10.1117/12.2041106},
    volume = {8976},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • R. Das, T. Nguyen, S. D. Lim, M. O. Donnell, R. K. Wang, and E. J. Seibel, “Feasibility of a hybrid elastographic-microfluidic device to rapidly process and assess pancreatic cancer biopsies for pathologists,” in 2014 health innovations and point-of-care technologies conference, Seattle, 2014, pp. 271-275.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Das2014a,
    address = {Seattle},
    author = {Das, Ronnie and Nguyen, Thu-mai and Lim, Saniel D and Donnell, Matt O and Wang, Ruikang K and Seibel, Eric J},
    booktitle = {2014 Health Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference},
    isbn = {9781479929184},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    pages = {271--275},
    title = {{Feasibility of a hybrid elastographic-microfluidic device to rapidly process and assess pancreatic cancer biopsies for pathologists}},
    year = {2014}
    }

2012

  • [DOI] Q. Miao, A. P. Reeves, F. W. Patten, and E. J. Seibel, “Multimodal 3D imaging of cells and tissue, bridging the gap between clinical and research microscopy.,” Annals of biomedical engineering, vol. 40, iss. 2, pp. 263-76, 2012.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Miao2012,
    abstract = {Absorption dyes are widely used in traditional cytology and pathology clinical practice, while fluorophores and nanoparticles are more often used in biologic research. Optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM) is a platform technology that can image the same specimen in multiple modes in 3D, providing morphologic and molecular information concurrently and in exact co-registration. The depth-of-field of a high numerical aperture objective is extended by scanning the focal plane through the sample to generate an optical projection image. Samples of cells or tissue are brought into the OPTM instrument through a microcapillary tube filled with optical index-matching gel. Multiple optical projection images are taken from different perspectives by rotating the tube. Computed tomography (CT) algorithms are applied to these optical projection images to reconstruct 3D structure of the sample. Image segmentation and analysis based on these 3D images provide quantitative biosignatures for cancer diagnosis that represents a clear improvement over conventional 2D image analysis. In this article, we introduce the OPTM platform, optical Cell-CT, and Tissue-CT instruments, and some applications using these OPTM instruments.},
    author = {Miao, Qin and Reeves, Anthony P and Patten, Florence W and Seibel, Eric J},
    doi = {10.1007/s10439-011-0411-5},
    issn = {1573-9686},
    journal = {Annals of biomedical engineering},
    keywords = {Animals,Cell Line, Tumor,Fibroblasts,Fibroblasts: cytology,Humans,Imaging, Three-Dimensional,Imaging, Three-Dimensional: methods,Microscopy,Microscopy: methods,Muntjacs,Tomography, Optical,Tomography, Optical: methods},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    number = {2},
    pages = {263--76},
    pmid = {21984512},
    title = {{Multimodal 3D imaging of cells and tissue, bridging the gap between clinical and research microscopy.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21984512},
    volume = {40},
    year = {2012}
    }
  • [DOI] A. P. Reeves, E. J. Seibel, M. G. Meyer, T. Apanasovich, and A. Biancardi, “Nuclear cytoplasmic cell evaluation from 3D optical CT microscope images,” in Medical imaging 2012: computer-aided diagnosis, 2012, p. 83153C.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Reeves2012,
    author = {Reeves, Anthony P. and Seibel, Eric J. and Meyer, Michael G. and Apanasovich, Tatiyana and Biancardi, Alberto},
    booktitle = {Medical Imaging 2012: Computer-Aided Diagnosis},
    doi = {10.1117/12.912399},
    editor = {van Ginneken, Bram and Novak, Carol L.},
    keywords = {cell structure,ct microscope,nuclear cytoplasmic ratio,optical topographical microscopy},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    pages = {83153C},
    title = {{Nuclear cytoplasmic cell evaluation from 3D optical CT microscope images}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?doi=10.1117/12.912399},
    volume = {8315},
    year = {2012}
    }

2011

  • [DOI] Q. Miao, J. Hayenga, M. G. Meyer, T. Neumann, F. Patten, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “High resolution optical projection tomographic microscopy for 3D tissue imaging,” in Three-dimensional and multidimensional microscopy: image acquisition and processing xviii, 2011, p. 79040L–79040L–5.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Miao2011,
    author = {Miao, Qin and Hayenga, Jon and Meyer, Michael G. and Neumann, Thomas and Patten, Florence and Nelson, Alan C. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    booktitle = {Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XVIII},
    doi = {10.1117/12.873485},
    editor = {Conchello, Jose-Angel and Cogswell, Carol J. and Wilson, Tony and Brown, Thomas G.},
    keywords = {needle biopsy,three-dimensional microscopy,tissue imaging,tomographic imaging},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    pages = {79040L--79040L--5},
    title = {{High resolution optical projection tomographic microscopy for 3D tissue imaging}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=719108},
    volume = {7904},
    year = {2011}
    }

2010

  • Q. Miao, J. Hayenga, M. G. Meyer, T. Neumann, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Resolution improvement in optical projection tomography by the focal scanning method.,” Optics letters, vol. 35, iss. 20, pp. 3363-5, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Miao2010a,
    abstract = {Optical projection tomography (OPT) requires the depth of field (DOF) of the lens to cover at least half of the sample. There is a trade-off between obtaining high resolution with a high-NA lens and obtaining large DOF with a low-NA lens. The DOF of a high-NA objective lens can be extended by scanning its focal plane through the sample. We call this extended DOF image a "pseudoprojection." Images reconstructed from these pseudoprojections have isometric resolution, which can be the same as the lateral resolution of the high-NA objective. The focal scanning method produces an over 10× improvement in OPT resolution.},
    author = {Miao, Qin and Hayenga, Jon and Meyer, Michael G and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C and Seibel, Eric J},
    issn = {1539-4794},
    journal = {Optics letters},
    keywords = {Algorithms,Animals,Cell Line,Cytological Techniques,Cytological Techniques: methods,Image Processing, Computer-Assisted,Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: methods,Imaging, Three-Dimensional,Imaging, Three-Dimensional: methods,Microscopy, Fluorescence,Microscopy, Fluorescence: methods,Muntjacs,Staining and Labeling,Tomography, Optical,Tomography, Optical: methods},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = oct,
    number = {20},
    pages = {3363--5},
    pmid = {20967067},
    title = {{Resolution improvement in optical projection tomography by the focal scanning method.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967067},
    volume = {35},
    year = {2010}
    }
  • [DOI] Q. Miao, J. Yu, M. G. Meyer, J. R. Rahn, T. Neumann, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Dual-modal optical projection tomography microscopy for cancer diagnosis,” in Three-dimensional and multidimensional microscopy: image acquisition and processing xvii, 2010, p. 75700H–75700H–7.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Miao2010,
    author = {Miao, Qin and Yu, Julia and Meyer, Michael G. and Rahn, J. R. and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    booktitle = {Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XVII},
    doi = {10.1117/12.839824},
    editor = {Conchello, Jose-Angel and Cogswell, Carol J. and Wilson, Tony and Brown, Thomas G.},
    keywords = {coregistration,fluorescence biomarker imaging,three-dimensional microscopy,tomographic imaging},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    pages = {75700H--75700H--7},
    title = {{Dual-modal optical projection tomography microscopy for cancer diagnosis}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=780888},
    volume = {7570},
    year = {2010}
    }
  • Q. Miao, J. Yu, R. J. Rahn, M. G. Meyer, T. Neumann, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Dual-mode optical projection tomography microscope using gold nanorods and hematoxylin-stained cancer cells.,” Optics letters, vol. 35, iss. 7, pp. 1037-9, 2010.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Miao2010b,
    abstract = {An optical projection tomography microscope (OPTM) can improve axial resolution by viewing a sample from different perspectives. Here, we report a dual-mode OPTM that can generate 3D images of single cancer cells in both absorption mode and polarization mode. Cancer cells were labeled with hematoxylin for absorption imaging and nanorods for polarization imaging. Absorption images can provide morphologic information, and polarization images can provide molecular information. The combination of molecular detection and 3D cytological cell analysis may help with early cancer diagnosis.},
    author = {Miao, Qin and Yu, Julia and Rahn, J Richard and Meyer, Michael G and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C and Seibel, Eric J},
    issn = {1539-4794},
    journal = {Optics letters},
    keywords = {Cell Line, Tumor,Contrast Media,Equipment Design,Equipment Failure Analysis,Gold,Gold: diagnostic use,Hematoxylin,Humans,Image Enhancement,Image Enhancement: instrumentation,Image Enhancement: methods,Lung Neoplasms,Lung Neoplasms: pathology,Microscopy,Microscopy: instrumentation,Nanostructures,Nanostructures: diagnostic use,Nanostructures: ultrastructure,Reproducibility of Results,Sensitivity and Specificity,Tomography,Tomography: instrumentation},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = apr,
    number = {7},
    pages = {1037--9},
    pmid = {20364209},
    title = {{Dual-mode optical projection tomography microscope using gold nanorods and hematoxylin-stained cancer cells.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20364209},
    volume = {35},
    year = {2010}
    }

2009

  • [DOI] M. G. Meyer, M. Fauver, R. J. Rahn, T. Neumann, F. W. Patten, E. J. Seibel, and A. C. Nelson, “Automated cell analysis in 2D and 3D: A comparative study,” Pattern recognition, vol. 42, iss. 1, pp. 141-146, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Meyer2009,
    author = {Meyer, Michael G. and Fauver, Mark and Rahn, J. Richard and Neumann, Thomas and Patten, Florence W. and Seibel, Eric J. and Nelson, Alan C.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.patcog.2008.06.018},
    issn = {00313203},
    journal = {Pattern Recognition},
    keywords = {automated classification},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = jan,
    number = {1},
    pages = {141--146},
    title = {{Automated cell analysis in 2D and 3D: A comparative study}},
    url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031320308002495},
    volume = {42},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Q. Miao, B. Hawthorne, M. Meyer, R. J. Rahn, T. Neumann, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Dual Modal Three-Dimensional Imaging of Single Cell Using Optical Projection Tomography Microscope,” Advances in imaging, p. NWA2, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Miao2009a,
    address = {Washington, D.C.},
    author = {Miao, Qin and Hawthorne, Benjamin and Meyer, Michael and Rahn, J. Richard. and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C. and Seibel, Eric J.},
    doi = {10.1364/NTM.2009.NWA2},
    isbn = {978-1-55752-871-1},
    journal = {Advances in Imaging},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    pages = {NWA2},
    publisher = {Osa},
    title = {{Dual Modal Three-Dimensional Imaging of Single Cell Using Optical Projection Tomography Microscope}},
    url = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=NTM-2009-NWA2},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Q. Miao, R. J. Rahn, A. Tourovskaia, M. G. Meyer, T. Neumann, A. C. Nelson, and E. J. Seibel, “Dual-modal three-dimensional imaging of single cells with isometric high resolution using an optical projection tomography microscope.,” Journal of biomedical optics, vol. 14, iss. 6, p. 64035, 2009.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Miao2009b,
    abstract = {The practice of clinical cytology relies on bright-field microscopy using absorption dyes like hematoxylin and eosin in the transmission mode, while the practice of research microscopy relies on fluorescence microscopy in the epi-illumination mode. The optical projection tomography microscope is an optical microscope that can generate 3-D images of single cells with isometric high resolution both in absorption and fluorescence mode. Although the depth of field of the microscope objective is in the submicron range, it can be extended by scanning the objective's focal plane. The extended depth of field image is similar to a projection in a conventional x-ray computed tomography. Cells suspended in optical gel flow through a custom-designed microcapillary. Multiple pseudoprojection images are taken by rotating the microcapillary. After these pseudoprojection images are further aligned, computed tomography methods are applied to create 3-D reconstruction. 3-D reconstructed images of single cells are shown in both absorption and fluorescence mode. Fluorescence spatial resolution is measured at 0.35 microm in both axial and lateral dimensions. Since fluorescence and absorption images are taken in two different rotations, mechanical error may cause misalignment of 3-D images. This mechanical error is estimated to be within the resolution of the system.},
    author = {Miao, Qin and Rahn, J Richard and Tourovskaia, Anna and Meyer, Michael G and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C and Seibel, Eric J},
    doi = {10.1117/1.3275470},
    issn = {1560-2281},
    journal = {Journal of biomedical optics},
    keywords = {Animals,Cell Line,Cytological Techniques,Cytological Techniques: methods,Female,Image Processing, Computer-Assisted,Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: methods,Imaging, Three-Dimensional,Imaging, Three-Dimensional: methods,Metaphase,Metaphase: physiology,Microscopy, Fluorescence,Microscopy, Fluorescence: methods,Muntjacs,Staining and Labeling,Staining and Labeling: methods,Tomography, Optical,Tomography, Optical: methods},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    number = {6},
    pages = {064035},
    pmid = {20059273},
    title = {{Dual-modal three-dimensional imaging of single cells with isometric high resolution using an optical projection tomography microscope.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20059273},
    volume = {14},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Q. Miao, R. J. Rahn, R. C. Bryant, C. a. Lancaster, A. Tourovskaia, T. Neumann, E. J. Seibel, and A. C. Nelson, “Multimodal Three-dimensional Imaging with Isometric High Resolution using Optical Projection Tomography,” in Medical imaging 2009: biomedical applications in molecular, structural, and functional imaging, 2009, p. 72620V–72620V–8.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Miao2009,
    author = {Miao, Qin and Rahn, J. Richard and Bryant, Ryland C. and Lancaster, Christy a. and Tourovskaia, Anna and Neumann, Thomas and Seibel, Eric J. and Nelson, Alan C.},
    booktitle = {Medical Imaging 2009: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging},
    doi = {10.1117/12.813844},
    editor = {Hu, Xiaoping P. and Clough, Anne V.},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = feb,
    pages = {72620V--72620V--8},
    title = {{Multimodal Three-dimensional Imaging with Isometric High Resolution using Optical Projection Tomography}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=815700},
    volume = {7262},
    year = {2009}
    }

2008

  • [DOI] T. Neumann, Q. Miao, J. Yu, M. Fauver, M. Meyer, R. J. Rahn, C. a Lancaster, E. J. Seibel, and A. C. Nelson, “Simultaneous 3D imaging of morphology and nanoparticle distribution in single cells with the Cell-CT technology.,” in Conference proceedings : annual international conference of the ieee engineering in medicine and biology society. ieee engineering in medicine and biology society. annual conference, 2008, pp. 379-81.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Neumann2008,
    abstract = {The Cell-CT is an optical projection tomography microscope (OPTM) developed for high resolution 3D imaging of single cells based on absorption stains and brightfield microscopy. In this study we demonstrate the use of the Cell-CT in multi-color mode for simultaneous imaging of cellular 3D morphology and the 3D distribution of nanoparticle clusters in the cytoplasm. The ability to image cellular processes in relation to cellular compartments with a non-fluorescence 3D technology opens new perspectives for molecular research.},
    author = {Neumann, Thomas and Miao, Qin and Yu, Julia and Fauver, Mark and Meyer, Michael and Rahn, J Richard and Lancaster, Christy a and Seibel, Eric J and Nelson, Alan C},
    booktitle = {Conference proceedings : Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference},
    doi = {10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4649169},
    isbn = {9781424418152},
    issn = {1557-170X},
    keywords = {Algorithms,Animals,Cell Line,Cell Size,Computer-Assisted,Computer-Assisted: methods,Image Enhancement,Image Enhancement: methods,Image Interpretation,Imaging,Lung Neoplasms,Lung Neoplasms: metabolism,Lung Neoplasms: pathology,Nanoparticles,Nanoparticles: analysis,Optical,Optical: methods,Particle Size,Rats,Reproducibility of Results,Sensitivity and Specificity,Subcellular Fractions,Subcellular Fractions: metabolism,Subcellular Fractions: pathology,Three-Dimensional,Three-Dimensional: methods,Tomography,Tumor},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = jan,
    pages = {379--81},
    pmid = {19162672},
    title = {{Simultaneous 3D imaging of morphology and nanoparticle distribution in single cells with the Cell-CT technology.}},
    url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19162672},
    volume = {2008},
    year = {2008}
    }

2005

  • M. Fauver, E. J. Seibel, R. J. Rahn, M. G. Meyer, F. W. Patten, T. Neumann, and A. C. Nelson, “Three-dimensional imaging of single isolated cell nuclei using optical projection tomography,” Optics express, vol. 13, iss. 11, pp. 432-444, 2005.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{Fauver2005,
    author = {Fauver, Mark and Seibel, Eric J and Rahn, J Richard and Meyer, Michael G and Patten, Florence W and Neumann, Thomas and Nelson, Alan C},
    journal = {OPTICS Express},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    number = {11},
    pages = {432--444},
    title = {{Three-dimensional imaging of single isolated cell nuclei using optical projection tomography}},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2005}
    }

2004

  • [DOI] M. Fauver, E. J. Seibel, J. R. Rahn, F. W. Patten, and A. C. Nelson, “Development of Micro-Optical Projection Tomography for 3D Analysis of Single Cells,” in Three-dimensional and multidimensional microscopy: image acquisition and processing xi, 2004, pp. 171-181.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{Fauver2004,
    author = {Fauver, Mark and Seibel, Eric J. and Rahn, J. R. and Patten, Florence W. and Nelson, Alan C.},
    booktitle = {Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XI},
    doi = {10.1117/12.530914},
    editor = {Conchello, Jose-Angel and Cogswell, Carol J. and Wilson, Tony},
    keywords = {Development of micro-optical projection tomography for 3D analysis of single cells},
    mendeley-groups = {HPL,HPL/3D\_OPTM},
    month = jul,
    pages = {171--181},
    title = {{Development of Micro-Optical Projection Tomography for 3D Analysis of Single Cells}},
    url = {http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1321747},
    volume = {5324},
    year = {2004}
    }