Advanced Physical Diagnosis
  • Techniques
• 1st & 2nd Heart Sounds
• 2nd & 3rd Heart Sounds
• Clicks and Snaps
• Murmurs
• Rubs
  • Demonstrations
Associated Evaluations
  • Patient HX
  • Physical Exam
  • Laboratory & Imaging
Differential Dx
Evidence Base
• Accuracy in Diagnosis of Systolic Murmurs
• Accuracy in Diagnosis of Diastolic Murmurs
• Accuracy in Diagnosis of CHF
Teaching Tips
[Skill Modules >> Heart Sounds & Murmurs >> References ]

References: Heart Sounds & Murmurs

To read more about physical diagnosis skills, check out the General References
  1. Aronow, WS, and I Kronzon. Correlation of prevalence and severity of valvular aortic stenosis determined by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography with physical signs of aortic stenosis in patients 62 to 100 years with aortic systolic ejection murmurs. Am J Cardiol 1987. 60(4):399-401.
  2. Badgett RG, CR Lucey, CD Mulrow, DL Simel, D Rennie. Can the clinical examination diagnose left sided heart failure in adults? JAMA 1997; 277:1712-1718.
  3. "Choudhry NK, Etchells EE. Does This Patient Have Aortic Regurgitation? JAMA. 1999; 281:2231.
  4. Etchells E, C Bell, K Robb, DL Simel, and D Rennie. Does this patient have an abnormal systolic murmur? JAMA 1997; 277:654-571.
  5. Fye, WB. Disorders of the heartbeat: A historical overview from antiquity to the mid-20th century. Am J Cardiol 1993; 72:1055-1070.
  6. Gaeschke, R, GH Guyatt, DL Sackett for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guides to the medical literature. VI. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A: Are the results of the study valid? JAMA 1994. 271:389-91.
  7. McGee S. Evidence based physical diagnosis. WB Saunders Co. 2001.
  8. McMichael, J. History of atrial fibrillation 1628-1819: Harvey - de Senac - Laennec. Br Heart J 1982; 48:193-197.
  9. Sapira, JD. The art and science of bedside diagnosis. (Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich) 1990.
Online References
  1. Cable, Christopher. (1997). The aucultation assistant [Online]. Available:
  2. Pasterkamp, Hans. (1999). The R.A.L.E. repository [Online]. Available:

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