Skip to content
Civil Rights and Labor History Consortium / University of Washington

IWW Newspapers

IWW Newspapers

Click image for informative essay about the early history of the IWW's most enduring newspaper

Like other radical organizations, the Industrial Workers of the World saw journalism as an essential part of their organizing strategy. More than ninety different newspapers and periodicals affiliated with the IWW during its prime decades, publishing in nineteen languages. The Industrial Worker is the most enduring. It was the title given to the first official organ of the IWW, a monthly founded in 1906 that ceased publication a year later in one of the splits that fractured the organization. A new Industrial Worker, a weekly based in Spokane, began in 1909 and lasted four years. It was resurrected in Seattle in 1916, suppressed for a time during World War I, then remained active in Seattle until 1931, when it was relocated to the Chicago headquarters. It remains the official publication of the Industrial Workers of the World.

One of Ralph Chaplin's memorable images (Solidarity, May 19, 1917 )

Solidarity was the largest circulation English language IWW publication. Founded in 1909 and edited for most of a decade by Ralph Chaplin, Solidarity demonstrated the best of the IWW's propaganda skills. Songs and art that have become emblematic of the IWW, many of them written and drawn by Chaplin, appeared first on its pages.

But most IWW periodicals were not for English speakers. That included the only daily newspaper, Industrialisti, based in Duluth and published in Finnish, with a circulation that reached 10,000 in 1919. Other newspapers appeared in Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Flemish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, and Yiddish.

See our interactive maps and lists of 90 IWW newspapers. Sort by language, by city, and by founding period. Click image above.

Most IWW periodicals were short-lived, lasting no more than two years, although sometimes the publication continued under a new name. Durability was especially a problem for the large number of newspapers that began during the IWW's surging membership years (1916-1919). Many were suppressed or soon collapsed. But it is instructive that eighteen newspapers were founded in the 1920s and 1930s and that as late as the 1940s four survived: Il Proletario (Italian, New York), Bérmunkás (Hungarian, Chicago), Industrialisti (Finnish, Duluth), and The Industrial Worker (English, Chicago).

Chicago, where the Industrial Workers of the World maintained its headquarters, was home to the largest number of periodicals. That city hosted at one time or another thirty-eight IWW newspapers publishing in fifteen languages. New York followed with sixteen newspapers. Click on the map above to see where the newspapers were published and learn more about them.

Below is a list of IWW periodicals compiled and shared with this project by Kenyon Zimmer. He developed the list in connection with his book, Immigrants Against the State: Yiddish and Italian Anarchism in America (University of Illinois, 2015).

Key: Newspapers that changed name are marked with a letter sequence (a,b,c). Newspapers that reused a name are marked by roman numerals as in Industrial Worker (III).

IWW newspapers by city

City State Publication Language Dates Maximum known circulation Preceded by Continued by
Alexandria LA Lumberjack (a) English 1913-1913 unknown Voice of the People (New Orleans)
Baltimore MD Darbininku Balsas (a) Lithuanian 1914-1917 unknown Darbininku Balsas (Chicago)
Brooklyn NY Der Yaker Yiddish 1915-1915 unknown
Brooklyn NY Solidaridad (b) Spanish 1919-1927 7500 La Nueva Solidaridad (a) Solidaridad (Brooklyn)
Chicago IL A Bérmunkás Hungarian 1912-1946 6000
Chicago IL A Felszabádulás Hungarian 1918-1921 800
Chicago IL Buoreviestnik Bulgarian 1917-1917 unknown
Chicago Il Darbininku Balsas (b) Lithuanian 1917-1919 unknown Darbininku Balsas (Baltimore)
Chicago IL Defensa obrera Spanish 1918-1918 unknown
Chicago IL Defense News Bulletin (1) (c) English 1917-1918 unknown Solidarity New Solidarity
Chicago IL Defense News Bulletin (II) (a) English 1931-1931 unknown Workers Defense
Chicago IL Defense News Service English 1922-1925 unknown
Chicago IL Der Industrialer Arbayter Yiddish 1919-1919 unknown
Chicago IL Der Klassen-Kampf German 1919-1920 unknown
Chicago IL Der Weckruf German 1912-1915 unknown
Chicago IL Glas Radnika Croatian 1919-1922 unknown
Chicago IL Golos Truzhenika Russian 1918-1927 1500
Chicago IL Il Nuovo Proletario Italian 1918-1919 1000
Chicago IL Industrial Pioneer (b) English 1921-1926 12500 One Big Union Monthly One Big Union Monthly
Chicago IL Industrial Solidarity (f) English 1921-1931 8000 Solidarity (e) Industrial Worker (merged)
Chicago IL Industrial Union Bulletin (I) English 1907-1909 11500 Industrial Worker (Spokane)
Chicago IL Industrial Worker (IV) English 1931-present unknown Industrial Worker (Seattle); Industrial Solidarity
Chicago IL Industrialen Rabotnik Croatian 1924-1924 unknown
Chicago IL Industrijalni Radnik (II) Croatian 1923-1925 unknown
Chicago IL Ipari Munkás (b) Hungarian 1917-1917 unknown Uj Tarsadalom
Chicago IL Jedna Velká Unie Czech 1927-1931 3000
Chicago IL La Nueva Solidaridad (a) Spanish 1918-1919 unknown
Chicago IL Muncitorul Romanian 1919-1919 150
Chicago IL New Solidarity (d) English 1918-1920 1500 Defense News Bulletin
Chicago IL Nya Världen Swedish 1919-1919 unknown
Chicago IL One Big Union Monthly (I)  English 1919-1921 6000
Chicago IL One Big Union Monthly (II)  English 1937-1938 unknown
Chicago IL Povenetakaya Sveada  Russian unknown-unknown unknown
Chicago IL Proletaras Lithuanian 1919-1923 2000
Chicago IL Průmyslový Dĕlník Czech 1914-1915 unknown Průmyslový Dĕlník (Cleveland)
Chicago IL Rabochaia riech' Russian 1915-1915 unknown
Chicago IL Rabotnicheska Misul Bulgarian 1917-1917 100
Chicago IL Rabotnicheska Probuda Bulgarian 1919-1920 unknown
Chicago IL Rabotnik Bulgarian 1917-1917 unknown
Chicago IL Railroad Workers' Bulletin English 1925-1925 unknown
Chicago IL Rebel Worker (II) English 1964-1967 unknown
Chicago IL Recruit English 1926-1930 unknown
Chicago IL Snaga Radnika Croatian unknown-unknown unknown
Chicago IL Solidarity (-e) English 1920-1921 unknown
Chicago IL Solidárność  Polish 1913-1917 unknown
Chicago IL Trudovaia Mysl' Russian 1919-1919 unknown
Chicago IL Uj Taradalom (a) Hungarian 1917-1917 unknown Ipari Munkás
Chicago IL Workers Defense (b) English 1931-1932 unknown Defense News Bulletin (II)
Chicago IL Young Recruit English 1930-1933 unknown
Cleveland OH One Big Union Bulletin English 1935-1937 unknown
Cleveland OH One Big Union Bulletin English 1935-1935 unknown
Cleveland OH Průmyslový Dĕlník Czech 1914-1914 unknown Průmyslový Dĕlník (Chicago)
Cleveland OH Solidarity (b) English 1911-1917 12000
Duluth  MN Ahjo Finnish 1919-1919 500
Duluth  MN Industrialisti (-c) Finnish 1917-1975 10000 Teollisuustyöläinen
Duluth  MN Sosialisti (a) Finnish 1914-1916 4000-10000   Teollisuustyöläinen
Duluth  MN Teollisuustyöläinen (b) Finnish 1916-1917 4000-10000 Sosialisti Industrialisti
Duluth MN Industrijalni Radnik (I) Croatian 1916-1919 unknown
Houston TX Rip-Tide English 1935-1935 unknown
Joliet  IL Industrial Worker (I) English 1906-1907 1024
Lawrence  MA Het Licht Flemish 1919-1919 unknown
Lawrence MA L'Emancipation (a) French 1910-1912 unknown L'Emancipation (Olneyville)
Los Angeles CA Huelga General Spanish 1913-1914 1000
Los Angeles CA New Unionist English 1918-1932 unknown
Los Angeles CA Wooden Shoe English 1912-1914 unknown
Los Angeles LA El Rebelde Spanish 1915-1917 2000
Minneapolis MN Allarm Swedish 1915-1917 unknown
New Bedford  MA A Luz Portuguese 1919-1919 unknown
New Castle PA Solidarity (a) English 1909-1911 unknown
New Orleans LA Rebellion: Made Up of Dream and Dynamite English 1915-1916 unknown
New Orleans LA Voice of the People (b) English 1913-1914 1500 Voice of the People (Portland, OR)
New York NY American International Musical and Theatrical Union Bulletin English 1906-1912 unknown
New York NY Fellow Worker English 1920-1920 12000
New York NY Fellow Worker (a) English 1920-1920 unknown Industrial Unionist
New York NY Haidamaky Russian 1914-1916 unknown
New York NY Il Lavoratore Industriale Italian 1906-1907 unknown
New York NY Il Proletario Italian 1906-1942 7000
New York NY Industrial Unionist (I) English 1920-1922 unknown Fellow Worker
New York NY Industriele Arbayter Shtime Yiddish 1920-1920 5000
New York NY Klassenkampf Yiddish 1919-1919 5000
New York NY Labor Defender English 1918-1918 unknown
New York NY Labor Defender (a) English 1918-1918 unknown Rebel Worker
New York NY Luokkataistelu Finnish 1919-1919 5000
New York NY Machine Age English 1929-1929 unknown
New York NY Marine Worker English 1921-1936 25000
New York NY Negro Worker English 1918-1918 unknown
New York NY One Big Union Advocate English 1939-1940 unknown
New York NY Rebel Worker (I) (b) English 1918-1919 12000 Labor Defender
New York NY Solidaridad (-c) Spanish 1927-1930   Solidaridad (Brooklyn)  
New York NY Tie Vapauteen Finnish 1919-1929 8000
New York NY Védelem Hungarian 1917-1917 unknown
Olneyville RI L'Emancipation (b) French 1913-1913 L'Emancipation (Lawrence)
Paterson NJ Textile Worker English 1919-1919 500
Phoenix AZ La Union Industrial Spanish 1919-1919 unknown
Portland OR Industrial Unionist (II) English 1925-1926 unknown
Portland Voice of the People (c) English 1914-1914 1500 Voice of the People (New Orleans)
Providence  RI Ragione Nuova Italian 1919-1919 unknown
San Diego CA Libertad y Trabajo  Spanish 1908-1909 unknown
San Francisco CA Cal Defense Bulletin English 1918-1918 unknown
San Francisco CA California Defense Bulletin English 1916-1918 unknown
Seattle WA Defense Bulletin of Seattle District English 1918-1918 unknown
Seattle WA Industrial Unionist English 1919-1919 unknown
Seattle WA Industrial Worker (III) English 1916-1931 9000 Industrial Worker (Spokane) Industrial Worker (Chicago)
Seattle WA Industri-Arbetaren Swedish/Norwegian 1924-1925 unknown
Seattle WA New Unionist English 1918-1918 unknown
Seattle WA Shingle Weaver (a) English 1906-1913 unknown
Seattle WA Solidaridet Swedish 1919-1919 unknown
Seattle WA Timber Worker (b) English 1913-1915 unknown Shingle Weaver
Seattle  WA Industrial Union Bulletin (II) English 1919-1919 unknown
Spokane WA Industrial Worker (II) English 1909-1913 9000 Industrial Worker (Seattle)
Tacoma WA One Big Union Bulletin English 1939-1940 unknown
Tampa FL El Obrero Industrial  Spanish 1914-1914 unknown
unknown unknown Darbunuku Balas Hungarian unknown-unknown unknown