Multi-disciplinary approach to understanding Botulinum toxin

RonetalFigResearch Associate Professor Werner Kaminsky contributed to a research project recently highlighted in Nature. With the catch phrase “BOTOX paralyses zebrafish muscles and blocks fin regeneration”, Nature highlighted a publication on the effect of Botulinum toxin on bone regeneration,[i] tested on small fish, whose fins were cut-off (under sedation), then regrown while testing different amounts of medications administrated to the fish’s dorsolateral trunk and the base of the tail fin prior to surgery.[ii] Nature summed up the findings with “muscle paralysis (was) similar to that seen in mammals and humans in that it was focal, dose-dependent and short-lasting.” and “BTx treatment had a negative impact on bone formation during fin regeneration.” The work involved a truly diverse multi-discipline co-operation between members of three departments on the UW campus: Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Pharmacology, and Chemistry. The regenerating zebrafish tail fin often provides a compelling model for therapeutic studies. However, a major hurdle to such efforts is the lack of quantitative modalities for bone mineralization analysis. Kaminsky contributed his patented microscopy technology to determine bone mineralization with a custom built automated polarized light microscope to sequentially acquire images under a stepwise rotating polarizer. This enabled birefringence to be decoupled from transmittance and orientation, allowing for quantitative analysis.




The absolute configurations of the bitter acids of hops determined

Werner Kaminsky, Research Associate Professor and Department Crystallographer, working with researchers at KinDex Therapeutics and the University of Washington, has recently determined the absolute configurations of the acids from hops that give beer its characteristic bitter flavor. The results, reported recently in the journal Angewandte Chemie, were determined by X-ray crystallography  of these humulones and isohumulones, as well as several of their derivatives.

Humulones are bacteriostatic bitter substances from hops (Humulus lupulus) and act as natural preservatives. When beer wort is heated together with hops, rearrangement products are formed. These bitter compounds, known as iso-alpha acids or isohumulones, give beer its characteristic flavor. In addition, extracts of hops, such as the more stable tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids used by some brewers instead of hops, have been developed.

When humulones rearrange, a ring containing six carbon atoms converts into a five-membered ring. At the end of this process, two side groups may be arranged in two different ways: They can be on the same side or on opposite sides of the plane of the ring (cis or trans). The determination of the configuration of these compounds was complex because the isomerization process of humulones results in a large number of very similar compounds that had to be separated, purified, and the acids converted into suitable salts.

The absolute configurations of the hops bitter acids found by Kaminsky and his co-workers contradict some of the results previously reported in the literature, which raises the question of how suitable the indirect methods (Horeau method, Cotton effect) used for these studies really are for such investigations. Thanks to their new insights, the researchers have now also been able to determine the mechanism of the rearrangement in detail.

Why is the configuration so interesting? Although excessive beer consumption is not recommended, there are some indications that the hops bitter acids may have positive effects on diabetes, some forms of cancer, and inflammation, as well as weight loss. However, the effects seem to vary substantially depending on the absolute configuration. In addition, the various degrees of bitterness in beer seem to depend on the different forms of the tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids. Now that their stereochemistry is definitively known, these conjectures can be seriously tested, since the binding of iso-alpha acids to proteins requires that their “handedness” be compatible—like nuts and bolts.

To learn more, visit Dr. Kaminsky’s faculty page or read more at Angewandte Chemie.

Kahr, Kaminsky, et al. determine structural origin of light polarizing properties of herapathite

A paper by Professor Bart Kahr and members of his research group appeared in this week’s issue of Science, published by the American Associate for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The paper details the crystal structure of herapathite (iodoquinine sulfate), a crystal structure that had remained unknown since the crystalline compound was first discovered in 1852. Herapathite, which functions as a linear dichroic light polarizer, was used to produce the first large-aperture light polarizers, patented as Polaroid in 1929.

Citation: “Herapathite.” Bart Kahr, John Freudenthal, Shane Phillips, and Werner Kaminsky. Science 324 (5933), 1407 (12 June 2009). [DOI: 10.1126/science.1173605]

To view the abstract and full text, please visit: Science Magazine.